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Annual, perennial herb, woody vine [shrub], occasionally aquatic. Leaf: generally basal and cauline, alternate or opposite, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, occasionally sheathing or stipule-like. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 3–6(20), free, early-deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0–many, generally free; stamens generally 5–many, staminodes generally 0; pistils 1–many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 0–1, generally ± persistent as beak, ovules 1–many. Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, ± utricle in Trautvetteria, in aggregate or not, 1–many-seeded.
± 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate, tropical mountains; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Helleborus, Nigella). some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus). [Whittemore & Parfitt 1997 FNANM 3:85–271] Taxa of Isopyrum in TJM (1993) moved to Enemion; Kumlienia moved to Ranunculus. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Ranunculaceae
Perennial herb; caudex thick, branched to not. Stem: 1–few, ascending to erect, branched to not, scapose to not, glabrous to glandular-hairy. Leaf: basal 1–3-ternate, petiole generally long; cauline 0–few, generally much reduced, deeply 3-lobed to 1–2-ternate, petiole short to ± 0; segments generally wedge-shaped to obovate, abaxially pale green to glaucous, adaxially green to gray, glabrous to glandular. Inflorescence: few-flowered raceme or flower 1, terminal; axis, pedicels glabrous to glandular; flower buds generally pendent. Flower: sepals 5, petal-like, spreading [to ± reflexed]; petals 5, spurs between sepals, mouths < to > 90° to exposed filaments; pistils generally 5. Fruit: follicle, glabrous to glandular. Seed: smooth, shiny, brown to black.Key to Aquilegia
± 70 species: temperate North America, Eurasia. Many species, hybrids cultivated as ornamental; natural hybrids common; recent adaptive radiation with specialized pollinations syndromes (bee, hummingbird, hawkmoth).
Unabridged etymology: (Perhaps Latin: eagle, from spurs, or water-drawer, from habitats)
Unabridged references: [Munz 1946 Gentes Herb 7:1–150]
Plant 20–80(150) cm, glabrous, glaucous at least proximally. Leaf: basal, lower cauline generally 2-ternate, petioles 5–30(40) cm, leaflets 7–45(130) mm; upper cauline generally simple to deeply 3-lobed. Inflorescence: flowers pendent. Flower: sepals 10–20(25) mm, red; petal blade 0 or 1–7 mm, yellow, spur 12–23 mm, red, tip 1.5–4 mm wide, mouth <= 90° to exposed filaments, 4–6 mm wide, ± round; stamens 10–18 mm. Fruit: 15–28 mm, beak 9–12 mm.
2n=14. Streambanks, seeps, moist places, chaparral, oak woodland, mixed-evergreen or conifer forests; < 3300 m. California Floristic Province (except Great Central Valley, South Coast, Channel Islands), Great Basin Floristic Province; to Alaska, Montana, Baja California. [Aquilegia formosa var. hypolasia (Greene) Munz; Aquilegia formosa var. truncata (Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Baker] Generally hummingbird-pollinated; leaf, petal blade variation needs study. Apr–Sep [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Aquilegia formosa f. anomala J.T. Howell; Aquilegia formosa var. pauciflora (Greene) Boothman]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Aquilegia formosa Fisch. ex DC.
Previous taxon: Aquilegia eximia
Next taxon: Aquilegia pubescens
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 26 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Aquilegia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=13668, accessed on Jul 26 2014
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© 1987 Gary A. Monroe
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