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APOCYNACEAE DOGBANE FAMILY

Thomas J. Rosatti, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree, often vine; sap generally milky. Leaf: simple, alternate, opposite, subwhorled to whorled, entire; stipules 0 or small, finger-like. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, cyme, generally umbel- or raceme-like, or flowers 1–2. Flower: bisexual, radial; perianth parts, especially petals, overlapped, twisted to right or left, at least in bud; sepals generally 5, fused at base, often reflexed, persistent; petals generally 5, fused in basal ± 1/2; stamens generally 5, attached to corolla tube or throat, alternate lobes, free or fused to form filament column and anther head, filament column then generally with 5 free or fused, ± elaborate appendages abaxially, pollen ± free or removed in pairs of pollinia; nectaries 0 or near ovaries, then 2 or 5[10], or in stigmatic chambers; ovaries 2, superior or ± so, free [fused]; style tips, stigmas generally fused into massive pistil head. Fruit: 1–2 follicles, (capsule), [berry, drupe]. Seed: many, often with tuft of hairs at 1 or both ends.
200–450 genera, 3000–5000 species: all continents, especially tropics, subtropical South America, southern Africa; many ornamental (including Asclepias, Hoya, Nerium, Plumeria, Stapelia); cardiac glycosides, produced by some members formerly treated in Asclepiadaceae, used as arrow poisons, in medicine to control heart function, and by various insects for defense. [Fishbein 2001 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 88:603–623] Asclepiadaceae ("asclepiads"), although monophyletic, included in Apocynaceae because otherwise the latter is paraphyletic. Complexity of floral structure, variation in asclepiads arguably greatest among all angiosperms. Pattern of carpel fusion (carpels free in ovule-bearing region, fused above), present ± throughout Apocynaceae (in broad sense), nearly unknown in other angiosperms. Base chromosome number generally 11; abundance of latex, generally small size of chromosomes evidently have impeded cytological investigations. —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Civeyrel et al. 1998 Molec Phylogen Evol 9:517–527; Rosatti 1989 J Arnold Arbor 70:307–401]

Key to Apocynaceae

APOCYNUM DOGBANE, INDIAN HEMP

Thomas J. Rosatti & Lauramay T. Dempster

Perennial herb, ascending or erect. Leaf: opposite. Inflorescence: generally cyme, >> 6-flowered. Flower: < 8 mm; corolla bell- or urn-shaped to cylindric, 5-lobed, with 5 triangular appendages alternate stamens; filaments free, attached at base of corolla tube, unappendaged, short, broad, anthers forming cone around and adherent to stigma, each partly sterile, sharply sagittate, pollen ± free; nectaries 5, free, around but not exceeding ovaries; ovaries free, not adherent, style ± 0, stigma massive, ovoid, obscurely 2-lobed. Fruit: slender, cylindric, pointed. Seed: with tuft of long hairs at 1 end.
7 species: North America. (Greek: away from, dog, from ancient use as dog poison) 2 geographically overlapped but ecologically different species in California, many hybrids between them, many of these named.
Unabridged note: 2 geographically overlapped but ecologically different species in California, many hybrids between them. Of many names proposed for these, some (e.g., Apocynum androsaemifolium var. glabrum Macoun; Apocynum medium Greene var. floribundum (Greene) Woodson; Apocynum pumilum (Gray) Greene; Apocynum pumilum var. rhomboideum (Greene) Beg. & Bel.) applied to plants more like Apocynum androsaemifolium, others (e.g., Apocynum cannabinum var. glaberrimum A. DC.; Apocynum sibiricum Jacq. var. salignum (Greene) Fern.) to plants more like Apocynum cannabinum; none here accepted since extent of such subdivision ± limitless.

Key to Apocynum

A. androsaemifolium L. BITTER DOGBANE
NATIVE
Stem: diffuse-branched. Leaf: blade 4–6 cm, >> petiole, base generally round or cordate, tip round or obtuse to ± acute. Inflorescence: terminal, also abortive flowers in upper leaf axils. Flower: corolla 4–8 mm, ± bell-shaped. Fruit: 7–11 cm, pendent or erect.
2n=16,22. Open slopes, rocky places, with conifers, chaparral; 200–2500 m. Northwestern California, High Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, High Sierra Nevada, Central Western California (except Outer South Coast Ranges), San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, Modoc Plateau, White and Inyo Mountains; to Canada, eastern North America. May–Oct [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Apocynum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=13635, accessed on Apr 24 2014

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click for enlargement Apocynum androsaemifolium
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2001 Gary A. Monroe

Bioregions in which Apocynum androsaemifolium occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.