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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Daniel Potter & Barbara Ertter, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Daniel Potter, except as noted

Annual to tree, glandular or not. Leaf: simple to palmately or pinnately compound, generally alternate; stipules free to fused (0), persistent to deciduous. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, cluster, or flowers 1; bractlets on pedicel ("pedicel bractlets") generally 0–3(many), subtended by bract or generally not. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium free or fused to ovary, saucer- to funnel-shaped, subtending bractlets ("hypanthium bractlets") 0–5, alternate sepals; sepals generally 5; petals generally 5, free; stamens (0,1)5–many, anther pollen sacs generally 2; pistils (0)1–many, simple or compound, ovary superior to inferior, styles 1–5. Fruit: 1–many per flower, achene (fleshy-coated or not), follicle, drupe, or pome with generally papery core, occasionally drupe-like with 1–5 stones. Seed: generally 1–5 (per fruit, not per flower).
110 genera, ± 3000 species: worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for ornamental, fruit, especially Cotoneaster, Fragaria, Malus, Prunus, Pyracantha, Rosa, Rubus. [Potter et al. 2007 Plant Syst Evol 266:5–43] Number of teeth is per leaf or leaflet, not per side of leaf or leaflet, except in Drymocallis. —Scientific Editors: Daniel Potter, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Robertson 1974 J Arnold Arbor 55:303–332, 344–401, 611–662]

Key to Rosaceae


Barbara Ertter

Annual, inconspicuous, soft-hairy, nonglandular. Stem: spreading to erect. Leaf: palmately lobed. Inflorescence: few-flowered cluster, axillary, ± hidden by sheathing stipules; pedicel bractlets 0. Flower: hypanthium ± urn-shaped, bractlets 0 or 4; sepals 4; petals 0; stamen generally 1, pollen sac 1, horseshoe-shaped; pistil generally 1, ovary superior, style attached near base. Fruit: hypanthium encasing achene, not hardened.
10–20 species: worldwide, especially Mediterranean. (Greek: unseen, from hidden flowers)
Unabridged references: [Rothmaler 1937 Fedde Rep Sp Nov Regni Veg 42:164–173]

A. occidentalis (Nutt.) Rydb.
Stem: generally 2–10 cm. Leaf: generally 3–12 mm; stipules widely ovate, deeply lobed; petiole generally 1–5 mm; blade generally 2–5 mm, ± round, main lobes 3, > 2/3 to base, again toothed or lobed. Flower: 0.5–2 mm; hypanthium bractlets 0 or < 0.5 mm; sepals 0.2–0.6 mm. Fruit: achene ± 1 mm, ovoid.
Seasonally moist grassland, chaparral, woodland; 30–1200 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Sacramento Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California; to Washington, Baja California. [Alchemilla occidentalis Nutt.] Highly variable; several ± separable forms. Mar–May [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Highly variable, with several ± separable forms. Relation to species of Mediterranean unclear. northern North Coast plants with more hidden flowers resemble Aphanes microcarpa (Boiss. & Reut.) Rothm. of eastern North America, Europe. Aphanes arvensis L. (larger plants) weedy in Oregon, Washington.

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 28 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Aphanes, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 28 2015

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click for enlargement Aphanes occidentalis
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2005 Steve Matson

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Aphanes occidentalis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.