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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Annual. Stem: erect, 1 to tufted, generally glabrous. Leaf: basal and cauline; ligule membranous, acute to toothed at tip; blade flat to rolled, generally ridged. Inflorescence: panicle-like; branches spike-like, minutely scabrous. Spikelet: glumes subequal, > floret, membranous, lower 1-veined, upper 3-veined; floret 1, vestigial florets occasionally present, bisexual, breaking above glumes; lemma rounded on back, membranous, short bristly at base, minutely scabrous and awned near tip, obscurely 3–5-veined, awn straight, flexible; palea ± = lemma.Key to Apera
3 species: temperate Europe, Asia. Cult for revegetation. (Greek: not maimed, alluding to occasional presence of vestigial florets) [Allred 2007 FNANM 25:788–789]
Stem: generally < 3, 1–6 dm, sometimes tufted. Leaf: ligule 1–4 mm; blade 1–3 mm wide, minutely scabrous above. Inflorescence: 5–15 cm; glumes 1.5–3 mm; lemma 1.5–2 mm, minutely scabrous at tip, awn 5–8 mm.
2n=14,28. Disturbed sites; 1220–1700 m. Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau (w of Alturas, Modoc Co.), White and Inyo Mountains (Furnace Creek, e Mono Co.); reported scattered elsewhere in western United States; native to Europe, Asia. Jun–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Apera
Next taxon: Apera spica-venti
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jan 27 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Apera, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=13604, accessed on Jan 27 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Apera interrupta|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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