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Andy Murdock, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, [shrub, tree], glabrous or hairy. Stem: often forked. Leaf: opposite, sessile or petioled, pairs generally unequal; blade generally entire. Inflorescence: generally forked; spike, head-like cluster, or umbel, flowers rarely 1, bracts forming a calyx-like involucre or not. Flower: bisexual, generally ± radial (bilateral), sometimes cleistogamous in some genera; perianth of 1 whorl, generally petal-like, bell- to trumpet-shaped, base hardened, tightly surrounding ovary in fruit, lobes 3–5, generally notched to ± lobed; stamens 1–many; ovary superior (appearing inferior due to hardened perianth base), style 1. Fruit: achene in hardened perianth base; round to ± flat; smooth, angled, ribbed, or winged; glabrous, hairy, or glandular.
30 genera, 350 species: warm regions, especially America; some ornamental (Bougainvillea; Mirabilis, four o'clock). [Spellenberg 2003 FNANM 4:14–17] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Nyctaginaceae


Andy Murdock & Richard Spellenberg

Perennial herb from thick caudex. Stem: little-branched, erect, > 7 mm diam; internodes with sticky brown ring. Leaf: few, ± in lower 1/2, petioled; blade oblong to round, thick. Inflorescence: openly branched; flowers in head, raceme, or umbel-like cluster; bracts 1–3, free, not forming involucre. Flower: perianth funnel-shaped; stamens 3, exserted; stigma ± spheric, exserted. Fruit: inconspicuously 10-ribbed, glabrous.
5 species: especially Chihuahuan Desert, northeastern Mexico. (Latin: ring stem, from sticky ring on internode) [Spellenberg 2003 FNANM 4:28–30] Closely related to Boerhavia.

A. annulatus (Coville) Standl.
Stem: < 1.5 m. Leaf: blade 3–10 cm, oblong to round-reniform, hairs stiff, with enlarged, dark, glandular base. Inflorescence: terminal, panicle-like, 1–2 branches per node, each ending in head-like cluster of flowers; bracts leaf-like, reduced; peduncle 15–40 mm. Flower: perianth ± 8 mm, tube ± green, hairy, limb pale pink. Fruit: 4–5 mm, spindle-shaped, gray-brown.
2n=48. Rocky slopes, canyons; < 1200 m. ne Mojave Desert (Death Valley region). [Boerhavia annulatus Coville] Apr–May [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Anulocaulis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Anulocaulis annulatus Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.