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Steven R. Hill, except as noted

Annual to tree; generally with stellate hairs, often with bristles or peltate scales; juice generally mucilage-like; bark fibrous. Leaf: generally cauline, alternate, petioled, simple [palmate-compound], generally palmate-lobed and/or veined, generally toothed, evergreen or not; stipules persistent or not. Inflorescence: head, spike, raceme, or panicle, in panicle or not (a compound panicle), or flowers >= 1 in leaf axils, or flowers generally 1 opposite a leaf or on a spur; bracts leaf-like or not; bractlets 0 or on flowering stalks, often closely subtending calyx, generally in involucel. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 5, generally fused at base, abutting in bud, larger in fruit or not, nectaries as tufts of glandular hairs at base; petals (0)5, free from each other but generally fused at base to, falling with filament tube, clawed or not; stamens 5–many, filaments fused for most of length into tube around style, staminodes 5, alternate stamens, or generally 0; pistil 1, ovary superior, stalked or generally not, chambers generally >= 5, styles or style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 1–2 × chamber number. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, [berry], or 5–many, disk- or wedge-shaped segments (= mericarps).
266 genera, 4025 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus okra; Alcea hollyhock; Gossypium cotton; Hibiscus hibiscus). [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553] Recently treated to include Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae. Mature fruit needed for identification; "outer edges" are surfaces between sides and back (abaxial surface) of segment. "Flower stalk" used instead of "pedicel," "peduncle," especially where both needed (i.e., when flowers both 1 in leaf axils and otherwise). —Scientific Editors: Steven R. Hill, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Alverson et al. 1999 Amer J Bot 86:1474–1486; Bayer et al. 1999 Bot J Linn Soc 129:267–303; Hill 2009 Madroño 56:104–111]

Key to Malvaceae


Paul A. Fryxell & Steven R. Hill

Annual (perennial herb) [subshrub]. Stem: decumbent [ascending] to erect. Leaf: generally ± lobed, ± entire to crenate or dentate, reduced distally on stem; stipules inconspicuous, deciduous. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, open, or flowers 1 in leaf axils; flowering stalks not jointed, >> flower; bractlets 0. Flower: calyx generally larger in fruit; petals ± purple, white, or yellow; anthers at top of filament tube; styles 5–20, stigmas head-like. Fruit: hemispheric to disk-like; segments 5–20, indehiscent, puberulent to bristly, side walls disintegrating, spur or spine 1 at distal angle or 0. Seed: enclosed in net-veined envelope or not, glabrous or puberulent.
25 species: especially Mexico to South America. (Ceylonese or Greek: without knot, from flower stalk not jointed) Anoda pentaschista A. Gray (petals yellow, generally fading ± red, fruit 4–5 mm diam, segments 5–8) a weed of citrus groves.
Unabridged etymology: (Ceylonese name; or Greek a, without and nodos, knot referring to lack of flower stalk articulation seen in some other genera)
Unabridged references: [Fryxell 1987 Aliso 11:485–522; Fryxell 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 25:82–105]

Key to Anoda

A. cristata (L.) Schltdl. VIOLETTAS
Stem: decumbent to erect, 0.5–1 m, sparsely bristly. Leaf: not leathery; blade 2–9 cm, often with central purple blotch, generally triangular to hastate, ± crenate or dentate; hairs generally simple. Inflorescence: generally flowers 1 in leaf axils, occasionally raceme-like in age. Flower: calyx ± 10 mm diam, 20–25 mm diam in fruit, lobes acuminate, often ± red, spreading in fruit; petals 8–30 mm; styles 10–20. Fruit: bristly.
2n=30,60,90. Uncommon in disturbed places; < 800 m. Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, South Coast, Desert; to southeastern and central United States, South America, Middle East, Australia; perhaps native to Mexico. [Anoda cristata var. digitata (A. Gray) Hochr.] Aug–Nov [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: In California also as agricultural weed.

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Next taxon: Anoda pentaschista


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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Anoda, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Anoda cristata Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.