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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Anita F. Cholewa, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, or subshrub, glabrous to glandular-hairy. Leaf: simple, ± basal, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: scapose umbel, subtended by involucre. Flower: bisexual, radial; parts in 4s or 5s (6s); calyx deeply lobed, often persistent; corolla lobes erect or spreading to reflexed; stamens epipetalous, opposite corolla lobes; ovary superior, 1-chambered, placenta free-central, style 1, stigma head- or dot-like. Fruit: capsule, 2–7-valved or circumscissile. Seed: small, few to many.
± 8 genera, 600 species: northern hemisphere; several ornamental (Primula). [Martins et al. 2003 Plant Syst Evol 237:75–85] Based on molecular evidence, non-rosette terrestrial members of Primulaceae as treated in TJM (1993) moved to Myrsinaceae, and Samolus to Theophrastaceae; based on the same evidence, Primulaceae has been treated alternatively to include all of Myrsinaceae and Theophrastaceae. Taxa of Dodecatheon in TJM2 treated here in Primula. —Scientific Editors: Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Källersjö et al. 2000 Amer J Bot 87:1325–1341; Lens et al. 2005 Syst Bot 30:163–183; Martins et al. 2003 Plant Syst Evol 237:75–85; Oberprieler & Hellwig 2003 Plant Syst Evol 237: 75–85; Stähl & Anderberg, in Kubitzki et al. 2004 Fam Generally Vasc Plant 6: 266–281]
Unabridged note: Recent molecular work has led to new understanding of relationships in Ericales. As treated here, non-rosette, terrestrial members of Primulaceae s.l. have been removed from that family and inserted in Myrsinaceae. Myrsinaceae, then, is characterized by synapomorphies of dark dots or streaks on stems, leaves, or flowers, short corolla tubes, seeds immersed in the placenta, and — for woody members — wood lacking rays or with only multiseriate rays. Primulaceae, Myrsinaceae, Theophrastaceae, and Maesaceae (a recent segregate of tropical trees), now constitute a closely related, monophyletic clade. A more recently proposed, alternative taxonomy treats all members of that large clade within an expanded Primulaceae.

Key to Primulaceae

Annual, perennial herb, generally < 12 cm. Inflorescence: umbel subtended by involucre. Flower: parts in 5s; calyx tube scarious, lobes acute; corolla salverform, tube narrowed at top, lobe tips obcordate or notched; filaments ± 0 or short, anthers free, oblong, included; ovary superior, spheric, style short. Fruit: 5-valved, spheric.
± 100 species: northern temperate, arctic, especially Asia. (Greek: uncertain sea-plant) [Schneeweiss et al. 2004 Syst Biol 53:856–876]
Unabridged references: [Robbins 1944 Amer Midl Naturalist 32:137–163; Schneeweiss et al. 2004 Syst Biol 53(6):856–876]

Key to Androsace

Annual, weak perennial herb, 1–6 cm, hairy. Leaf: 5–20 mm, lance-linear, tapered to petiole, entire to finely dentate. Inflorescence: peduncles (1)several; involucre bracts 1.7–3 mm, generally < 0.5 mm wide, lance-linear to lanceolate; pedicel 0.5–5 cm. Flower: calyx (2.5)3–4 mm, glabrous or puberulent at base, tube > lobes, scarious between ridges, lobes widely lanceolate to triangular, generally ± red, tips acute to obtuse; corolla >= calyx, white.
Dry, rocky sites; 2700–3600 m. c&s High Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada; to British Columbia, Rocky Mountains. [Androsace septentrionalis subsp. puberulenta (Rydb.) G.T. Robbins; Androsace septentrionalis subsp. subumbellata (A. Nelson) G.T. Robbins] Jul–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Androsace, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Androsace septentrionalis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.