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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, simple or compound, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
[Annual] perennial herb (may flowering 1st year); hairs bristly, bases bulbous or not. Stem: ± erect. Leaf: basal and cauline, petioled to sessile, clasping, lance-linear [oblong to oblanceolate], ± entire. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, generally spike-like cymes; tip coiled. Flower: corolla funnel-shaped to salverform, pale blue to violet, appendages 5, ovate to oblong, ± puberulent; stamens included to exserted. Fruit: nutlets 1–4, erect, ± ovoid, irregularly angled or wrinkled, exposed attachment scar basal or oblique, scar surrounded by thick rim.Key to Anchusa
± 35 species: Eurasia, Africa. Ornamental, cultivated for drugs, dyes. (Greek: ancient name for alkanet) Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. occasionally in orchards.
Unabridged references: [Greuter 1965 Candollea 20:192–210]
Stem: 5–8 dm. Leaf: upper 5–15 mm wide. Flower: calyx 6–9 mm, 8–12 mm in fruit, lobes linear; corolla radial, salverform, tube 6–10 mm, straight, limb 12–20 mm diam, blue, appendages white; stamens on upper tube, ± exserted. Fruit: nutlet base 2–4 mm wide, tip erect, attachment scar basal.
2n=32. Open sites, disturbed areas; < 500 m. n Sierra Nevada Foothills, s Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area; widespread United States; native to central and southern Europe. Evidently not collected in California since 1965. May–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Anchusa
Next taxon: Anchusa officinalis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Anchusa, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=13218, accessed on Apr 20 2014
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