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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual, perennial herb, [shrub, tree], generally hairy, often glandular, resin canals appearing as dark dots or streaks on stems, leaves, or flowers. Leaf: simple, alternate, opposite, subopposite, or whorled, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: terminal or axillary, flowers 1 or not. Flower: bisexual, radial; parts in [4s] 5s to 7s; calyx deeply lobed, often persistent; corolla lobes generally spreading; stamens epipetalous, opposite corolla lobes; ovary superior, 1-chambered, placenta free-central, style 1, stigma head-like. Fruit: capsule, circumscissile or 5–6-valved [drupe, drupe-like]. Seed: –many.
± 40 genera, 800 species: especially tropics, subtropics some ornamental (Anagallis, Lysimachia). [Lens et al. 2005 Syst Bot 30:163–183] Based on molecular evidence, non-rosette terrestrial members of Primulaceae as treated in TJM (1993) removed to Myrsinaceae. Based on phylogenetic research, all California members of Myrsinaceae have been or need to be transferred to Lysimachia (see 2009 Willdenowia 39:49–54): Anagallis arvensis L. is now Lysimachia arvensis (L.) U. Manns & Anderb., Anagallis minima (L.) E.H.L. Krause is now Lysimachia minima (L.) U. Manns & Anderb., Anagallis monelli L. is now Lysimachia monelli (L.) U. Manns & Anderb., Glaux maritima L. is now Lysimachia maritima (L.) Galasso et al.; and Trientalis europaea L. is now Lysimachia europaea (L.) U. Manns & Anderb.; unfortunately, a combination for Trientalis latifolia Hook. in Lysimachia had not yet been published by the time of this writing. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Källersjö et al. 2000 Amer J Bot 87:1325–1341; Lens et al. 2005 Syst Bot 30:163–183; Oberprieler & Hellwig 2003 Plant Syst Evol 237: 75–85; Stähl & Anderberg, in Kubitzki et al. 2004 Fam Generally Vasc Plant 6: 266–281]
Unabridged note: Recent molecular work has redefined Ericales. As delineated by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (see http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/), non-rosette, terrestrial members of Primulaceae s.l. have been removed from that grouping and inserted in Myrsinaceae. Myrsinaceae, then, is characterized by synapomorphies of dark dots or streaks on stems, leaves, or flowers, short corolla tubes, seeds immersed in the placenta, and – for woody members – wood lacking rays or with only multiseriate rays. Primulaceae, Myrsinaceae, Theophrastaceae, and Maesaceae (a new segregate of tropical trees), now constitute a closely related, monophyletic clade. Lysimachia has been recognized (even by Linnaeus) as a rather complex group with close affinities to other genera (Glaux, for instance, has been shown to be an apetalous sp. of Lysimachia). Phylogenetic research (by Arne A. Anderberg and colleagues in Europe) on this and related genera indicated that they were actually specialized taxa that had evolved within Lysimachia. Shortly after publication of Volume 8 of Flora of North America, the necessary nomenclatural changes were made in Willdenowia (2009)39: 49–54 by Manns and Anderberg. With respect to the California flora, the following names have been changed: Anagallis arvensis L. is now Lysimachia arvensis (L.) U. Manns & Anderb.; Anagallis minima (L.) E.H.L. Krause is now Lysimachia minima (L.) U. Manns & Anderb.; Anagallis monelli L. is now Lysimachia monelli (L.) U. Manns & Anderb.; Glaux maritima L. is now Lysimachia maritima (L.) Galasso, Banfi, & Soldano; and Trientalis europaea L. is now Lysimachia europaea (L.) U. Manns & Anderb. Unfortunatley, Trientalis latifolia Hooker, at one time considered a variety of the northeastern Trientalis borealis Raf. [now L. borealis (Raf.) U. Manns & Anderb.] and as a variety of Trientalis europaea, was not included in Manns & Anderberg's nomenclatural changes, and a new combination for it is needed.
Key to Myrsinaceae
Plant ± erect to spreading. Stem: simple to diffusely branched. Leaf: cauline, alternate, opposite or whorled, ± sessile, generally entire. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in axils of upper leaves, generally pedicelled. Flower: calyx persistent; filaments free or fused at base. Fruit: circumscissile, spheric.Key to Anagallis
20 species: generally Eurasia. (Greek: pimpernel) [Manns & Anderberg 2005 Int J Plant Sci 166:1019–1028] Inclusion of Anagallis minima, Centunculus minimus in TJM (1993), controversial, based primarily on morphology; reports of Anagallis foemina from California based on blue-flowered forms of Anagallis arvensis.
Unabridged note: Placement of Anagallis minima (Centunculus minimus) is problematic. Martins et al. (2003) have nuclear DNA evidence to indicate Centunculus is closely allied to the Lysimachia clade and not Anagallis, but the morphology coincides more with Anagallis (see Kubitzki, K. et al., eds. 2004. Fam Generally Vasc Plant, 6+ vols. Berlin, Springer) and placement has gone back and forth with inclusion being the current concept.
Annual, spreading. Stem: 5–40 cm, freely branched. Leaf: opposite or whorled; blade 5–20 mm, ovate to elliptic, upper lanceolate to ovate. Flower: pedicel 1–3 cm, generally > subtending leaf, recurved in fruit; parts in 5s; calyx 3–5 mm, <= corolla, divided nearly to base; corolla hidden by calyx in bud, 4–7 mm, salmon, blue or blue-white, marginal hairs on petals many, terminal cell spheric.
2n=40. Common. Disturbed places, ocean beaches; generally < 1000 m. California Floristic Province, Mojave Desert; to eastern North America; native to Europe. TOXIC to livestock, humans. Mar–May [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Anagallis arvensis L. subsp. arvensis; Anagallis arvensis var. caerulea (L.) Gouan; Anagallis caerulea L.; Anagallis arvensis subsp. foemina (Mill.) Schinz & Thell., misappl.; Anagallis caerulea Lam., misappl.; Anagallis caerulea Schreb., misappl.; Anagallis foemina Mill., misappl.]
Previous taxon: Anagallis
Next taxon: Anagallis minima
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 8 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Anagallis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=13197, accessed on Mar 8 2014
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