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Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
Annual; hairs generally bristly, often bulbous-based. Stem: generally erect, 2–12 dm, generally green. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate, sessile or lower short-petioled, generally linear to narrow-lanceolate or -oblong, generally not succulent, ± entire. Inflorescence: spike-like cymes, generally ± terminal, tip coiled. Flower: generally radial; calyx lobes 5 or 2–4 (see key); corolla tube generally not constricted, generally orange or yellow (red-orange), appendages generally 0, throat generally open, glabrous, limb on large-flowered taxa generally with 5 dark spots. Fruit: nutlets erect, ± triangular, adaxially generally with exposed elliptic attachment scar, generally with rounded or sharp tubercles.Key to Amsinckia
14 species: western North America, southwestern South America, widely alien elsewhere. (W. Amsinck, patron of Hamburg Botanic Garden, 1752–1831) Self-compatible; often heterostylous; large-flowered taxa generally cross-pollinated, small-flowered self-pollinated.
Unabridged references: [Ray & Chisaki 1957 Amer J Bot 44:529–554; Suksdorf 1931 Werdenda 1:47–113; Kelley & Seiber 1992 Phytochemistry 31:2369–2387]
Flower: calyx lobes 5, ± equal in width, not fused above base; corolla 10–20 mm, tube 10-veined near base, limb 8–14 mm diam, orange; stamens generally attached near tube top, anthers not appressed to, generally below stigma (if stigma at bottom 1/3 of tube, then anthers above stigma, at throat); style generally ± exserted from throat. Fruit: 2.5–4 mm, ± sharp-tubercled, occasionally ridged.
2n=24. Open valleys, hills; 10–1500 m. North Coast, Inner North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Great Central Valley, South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California. [Amsinckia intermedia Fisch. & C.A. Mey. var. eastwoodiae (J.F. Macbr.) Jeps. & Hoover] Generally homostylous. Mar–May [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Colorful, large populations in southern Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area; rare. Like large-flowered plants of Amsinckia menziesii var. intermedia (style included). Apparently rare heterostylous populations restricted to central-e San Joaquin Valley, central Sierra Nevada Foothills.
Previous taxon: Amsinckia douglasiana
Next taxon: Amsinckia furcata
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 1 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Amsinckia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=13127, accessed on Dec 1 2015
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© 2008 Chris Winchell
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Amsinckia eastwoodiae|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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