|University of California, Berkeley|
|Directory News Site Map Home|
|Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Annual to subshrub; monoecious and/or dioecious; occasionally spiny; hairs simple (branched). Leaf: blade simple, alternate or opposite, margins entire or serrate; veins pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal; 3-flowered cymes in dense spikes, heads or panicles; bracts 0 or 1–5, persistent; bractlets 0–2. Flower: bisexual or unisexual, small, green (± white), yellow or purple; perianth parts 0 or (1)3–5, free or fused basally, scarious or hardened, persistent; stamens 1–5, opposite perianth parts, free or basally fused as a tube, generally unequal, occasionally alternate with appendages on stamen tubes (pseudostaminodes), anthers 2- or 4-chambered; ovary superior, chamber 1; ovule 1 (2–many); style (0)1–3, stigmas 1–3(5). Fruit: utricle; generally with persistent perianth or bracts. Seed: 1 [2+], small, lenticular to spheric, smooth or dotted to striate or tubercled.
± 75 genera, 900 species: cosmopolitan, especially disturbed, arid, saline or alkaline soils; some cultivated for food, ornamental; many naturalized, ruderal or agricultural weeds. [Müller & Borsch 2005 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 92:66–102] Amaranthaceae including Chenopodiaceae by some. Polycnemoideae, represented in California by Nitrophila, formerly considered subfamily of Chenopodiaceae, but needs further research. Guilleminea densa (Willd.) Moq. var. aggregata Uline & W.L. Bray is a waif. Froelichia gracilis (Hook.) Moq. is an historical waif. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Kadereit et al. 2003 Int J Plant Sci 164:959–986; Robertson 1981 J Arnold Arbor 62:267–313]
Key to Amaranthaceae
[Annual] perennial herb, aquatic to terrestrial. Stem: prostrate or ascending; hairs simple. Leaf: opposite, subsessile to short-petioled, blade margins entire to serrate. Inflorescence: axillary or axillary and terminal, sessile or peduncled, many-flowered cylindric spikes or spheric heads; bracts and bractlets persistent, scarious. Flower: bisexual; perianth parts 5, free, ± equal or not, scarious, persistent, white, glabrous or woolly; stamens 3–5, fused at base into short tube or cup, anthers 2-chambered; pseudostaminodes 5, alternate with stamens; ovary obovoid to ± spheric; style short, ± 0.2 mm; stigma spheric (2-lobed), ovule 1, pendent. Fruit: indehiscent; fruit wall membranous. Seed: 1, lenticular or ovoid-oblong, ± red brown, smooth, shiny.Key to Alternanthera
± 170 species: generally tropical America. (Latin: alternating pseudostaminodes and stamens) Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC. occasionally a greenhouse weed <Noxious weed>; Alternanthera ficoidea (L.) P. Beauv. var. bettzickiana (Regel) Backer widely cultivated, California reports unconfirmed.
Terrestrial. Stem: prostrate, mat-forming, 10–50 cm, woolly, ± glabrous in age. Leaf: petiole 2–10 mm; blade 5–25 mm, 3–15 mm wide, rhombic-ovate to obovate, tip rounded, short-pointed, sparsely woolly, ± glabrous in age. Inflorescence: 5–8 mm, 4–6 mm wide, ovoid, white to straw-colored; bracts 3–3.5 mm, ovate to lanceolate, keeled, midrib hairy, acuminate to awned. Flower: perianth parts unequal, spine-tipped, outer 3.5–5 mm, ± lanceolate, not keeled, 3-veined abaxially, inner 2.5 mm, ± linear, keeled, generally 1-veined; stamens 5, filaments 0.2–0.4 mm, pseudostaminodes < stamens, triangular or awl-like, entire to dentate. Fruit: ± 1.5 mm, ovoid-spheric, brown, tip ± truncate. Seed: 1–1.5 mm, ovate-spheric.
Generally disturbed areas; < 150 m. South Coast; to southeastern United States, central Mexico, also Africa; native to Central America, South America. Aug–Oct [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Alternanthera peploides (Roem. & Schult.) Urb.; Alternanthera pungens Kunth, misappl.; Alternanthera repens (L.) Kuntze, misappl.]
Previous taxon: Alternanthera
Next taxon: Alternanthera philoxeroides
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 28 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Alternanthera, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=12841, accessed on Aug 28 2014
Copyright © 2014 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Alternanthera caracasana|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
View elevation by latitude chart
| Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
CCH collections by month