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Perennial herb; bulb 1 or on rhizomes, reforming each year; bulblets at bulb bases or on rhizomes; outer bulb coat brown, red-brown, yellow-brown, or gray; inner coats generally white (pink, red, or yellow); onion odor, taste present (except Nothoscordum). Stem: scapose, cylindric, sometimes flat or triangular. Leaf: basal, sheathing stem, linear [or not], cylindric, channeled or flat, generally ± withering from tip by flowering. Inflorescence: umbel (1-flowered in Ipheion), bracts generally 2, splitting and appearing 2+ or not, ± fused, enclosing flower buds, scarious. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 petal-like whorls, ± free to fused in lower 1/3–1/2; stamens 6, fused to perianth, filaments widened at base, anthers attached at middle; ovary superior, 3-lobed, chambers 3, ovules 2+ per chamber, style 1, stigma entire or ± 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal. Seed: black, sculpture net-like, smooth, or granular.
13 genera, 750–800 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for food, ornamental. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Alliaceae
Outer bulb coat generally brown to gray, inner generally white. Stem: scapose, cylindric, triangular in ×-section, or flat. Leaf: basal, 1–5 per stem, linear, cylindric, channeled, or flat, generally withering from tip before flower. Inflorescence: umbel, flowers 3–many, rarely all or in part replaced by bulblets; bracts generally 2–4, obvious, ± fused, scarious. Flower: perianth parts ± free, generally with darker or contrasting midvein, outer generally wider; filaments fused into a ring; ovary with 0, 3, or 6 crests, ovules generally 2 per chamber. Seed: obovoid, generally unappendaged.Key to Allium
700 species: generally northern temperate, especially California. (Latin: garlic) [McNeal & Jacobsen 2002 FNANM 26:224–276] Replanting bulbs after study essential for survival of plant; shape, arrangement of cells of outer bulb coat (outer bulb coat sculpture) generally important in identification, generally determined only with magnification; color of outer bulb coat may be masked by substrate; stem lengths from top of bulb to base of inflorescence, not from substrate surface.
Bulb 15–25 mm, ovoid; outer coat sculpture 0 or cells ± square, in 2–3 rows basally. Stem: 3–10 cm. Leaf: 1–2, 1.5–4 × stem, ± flat to widely channeled. Inflorescence: flowers 20–30; pedicels 5–18 mm. Flower: 7–14 mm; perianth parts ± oblong to elliptic, entire, ± pink; ovary crests 3, minute, central.
n=7,14. Open, serpentine, volcanic, or granitic places; 300–1800 m. Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, s High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, se San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains. Most northern California plants have 1 leaf; southern California plants and 2 populations in Mariposa Co. have 2 leaves; some North Coast Ranges populations mixed. Mar–Jun [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Allium cepa
Next taxon: Allium crispum
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 16 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Allium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=12550, accessed on Apr 16 2014
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© 2009 Keir Morse
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