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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Robert E. Preston & Elizabeth McClintock

Shrub, tree; generally dioecious. Stem: occasionally thorny; bark often bitter. Leaf: generally alternate, simple, entire, or pinnately compound, leaflets subentire to toothed near base. Inflorescence: panicle, raceme, or flowers 1. Flower: unisexual, inconspicuous; sepals generally 4–5, generally fused at base, generally erect; petals generally 5, free, generally spreading; stamens generally 10, generally on disk, filaments often with a basal scale; pistils 1–8, ovaries superior, 1–2-chambered, 1-ovuled [if pistil 1, chambers generally 2–5, 1-ovuled], styles free or partly fused. Fruit: winged achenes or drupes [berry, nut], in clusters [not].
22 genera, 100 species: tropics, warm temperate; some cultivated. [Clayton et al. 2007 Int J Plant Sci 168:1325–1339] Bark, leaves used traditionally to treat malaria, other ailments. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Brizicky 1962 J Arnold Arbor 43:173–186; Fernando & Quinn 1995 Taxon 44:177–181]

Key to Simaroubaceae

Plant ± dioecious, with a few bisexual flowers. Leaf: generally ± odd-pinnate, ill-smelling when crushed, deciduous. Inflorescence: large panicle, terminal. Flower: calyx lobes 5–6; petals 5–6; stamens 10–12; ovaries very compressed, adherent near middle, styles ± free but twisted together. Fruit: 1–5, ± pendent, seed near middle.
5 species: southeastern Asia, Australasia. (Moluccan: sky tree) [Corbett & Manchester 2004 Int J Plant Sci 165:671–690]

A. altissima (Mill.) Swingle TREE OF HEAVEN
Plant < 20 m; young parts ± glandular-puberulent. Leaf: 3–9 dm; leaflets 13–25, 8–13 cm, lanceolate, base generally ± truncate, with 2–4 teeth, each with a large gland abaxially. Inflorescence: 10–20 cm. Flower: sepals < 1 mm, petals 2–3 mm, spreading. Fruit: < 5 cm, linear or oblong.
Disturbed areas, grassland, oak woodland, riparian areas; < 1860 m. Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California (except Channel Islands), White and Inyo Mountains, Desert Mountains; widely naturalized in temps; native to China. Cult as street tree, fast-growing, spreading by seeds, invasive roots. Common near old habitations. Jun {Noxious weed} [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Ailanthus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Ailanthus altissima Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.