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RHAMNACEAE BUCKTHORN FAMILY

John O. Sawyer, Jr., except as noted

[Perennial herb] shrub, tree, generally erect, often thorny. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, often clustered on short-shoots; stipules generally present, occasionally modified into spines; generally petioled; blade pinnate-veined or 1–5-ribbed from base. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, umbel, or flowers 1 or clustered in axils or on short-shoots. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium subtending, surrounding, or partly fused to ovary; sepals 4–5; petals 0, 4–5, generally clawed; stamens 0, 4–5, alternate sepals, attached to hypanthium top, each generally fitting into a petal concavity; disk (0 or) between stamens, ovary, thin to fleshy, entire or lobed, free from ovary, adherent or fused to hypanthium; ovary superior or ± inferior, chambers [1]2–4, 1–2-ovuled, style 1, stigma entire or 2–3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe.
50–52 genera, 950 species: especially tropics, subtropics some cultivated (Ceanothus; Frangula; Rhamnus; Ziziphus). [Richardson et al. 2000 Amer J Bot 87:1309–1324] —Scientific Editors: Steve Boyd, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Brizicky 1965 J Arnold Arbor 45:439–463; Richardson et al. 2000 Kew Bull 55:311–341]

Key to Rhamnaceae

ADOLPHIA
Shrub. Stem: branches dense, opposite, rigid, green; twigs spreading, jointed at base, thorn-tipped, glabrous to puberulent. Leaf: opposite, clustered in axils or not, early-deciduous; stipules ± triangular, black, shiny; blade entire, 1–3-ribbed from base. Inflorescence: small axillary clusters; pedicel generally white to green-white. Flower: hypanthium bowl-shaped, generally white to green-white; sepals 5, triangular, persistent; petals 5, spoon-shaped, white; stamens 5; disk fused to hypanthium, 5-angled, fleshy, generally white to green-white; ovary superior, chambers 3, 1-ovuled, stigma 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, spheric, explosively dehiscent.
2 species: California, Texas, Mexico. (Adolphe T. Brongniart, student of Rhamnaceae, 1801–1876)

A. californica S. Watson CALIFORNIA ADOLPHIA
NATIVE
Plant < 1.5 m. Stem: twigs stout. Leaf: petiole 2–4 mm; blade, 3–12 mm, elliptic-oblong to obovate, base wedge-shaped, tip obtuse to acute. Flower: hypanthium 3 mm wide; petals 2 mm. Fruit: ± 5 mm.
Coastal scrub, chaparral; < 400 m. South Coast, Peninsular Ranges; Mexico. Dec–Apr [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}
Unabridged note: Tortosa (1993 Darwiniana 32:185–189) treated Adolphia californica as a synonym of Adolphia infesta of Arizona, northern Mexico, Texas, but did note regional differences. See Shreve & Wiggins 1964 Vegetation and flora of the Sonoran Desert for a comparison.

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Adolphia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=11984, accessed on Dec 20 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Adolphia californica Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.