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SAPINDACEAE SOAPBERRY FAMILY

Alan T. Whittemore, except as noted

Tree, shrub, [woody vine]. Leaf: opposite [alternate], generally palmately or ternately [pinnately] lobed to compound, deciduous, petioled; stipules 0. Inflorescence: umbel, panicle, or pendent raceme, axillary or terminal. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or ± bilateral; sepals (4)5, free or fused; petals 0, 4, or 5(6); prominent disk between petals and stamens; stamens 5–12, free; ovary superior, chambers 2–3, each 2[1]-ovuled, style short or 0, stigmas 2(3), linear, or 1, unlobed. Fruit: 2(3) 1-seeded mericarps, conspicuously winged, or generally leathery, generally 1[many]-seeded capsule [berry, nut, drupe].
150 genera, 1500 species: ± worldwide. Acer traditionally placed in Aceraceae, Aesculus in Hippocastanaceae. Cupaniopsis anacardioides (A. Rich.) Radlk. possibly naturalizing in southern California. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Harrington, M.G., K.J. Edwards, S.A. Johnson, M.W. Chase, & P.A. Gadek. 2005. Phylogenetic inference in Sapindaceae sensu lato using plastid matK and rbcL DNA sequences. Syst Bot 30: 366–382.]
Unabridged note: Acer and Aesculus have traditionally been placed in small families (Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae, respectively). However, virtually all the traits considered characteristic of these two small families are also found in the closely related large family Sapindaceae, and it seems more reasonable to emphasize the close relationship of the whole group by treating it as a single family, rather than maintaining two small segregate families that differ from Sapindaceae in virtually nothing except opposite leaves (Harrington et al. 2005).

Key to Sapindaceae

ACER MAPLE
Shrub, tree; occasionally monoecious. Inflorescence: umbel, panicle, or pendent raceme.
± 130 species: northern hemisphere. (Latin name for Acer campestre) Many species monoecious or dioecious.
Unabridged note: The sexuality of Acer species is complex, with some species described as dioecious or monoecious and many species described as having both unisexual and bisexual flowers on the same tree. However, maple flowers that appear morphologically bisexual may be functionally unisexual, producing functional pollen or ovules but not both. More study of sexuality is needed in our native maples. In some Acer species, fruit may become fully developed even if no seed is set, so that production of morphologically normal fruit is no proof that a plant is reproducing.

Key to Acer

A. macrophyllum Pursh BIG-LEAF MAPLE
NATIVE
Tree < 30 m; monoecious. Leaf: 8–15 cm, 10–25 cm wide, 5-lobed to 1/2–3/4 of leaf length, lobes with 1–3 rounded-acute 2° lobes on at least one side, abaxially green, pubescent at least near base. Inflorescence: pendent raceme or panicle, terminal, flowers 20–90, appearing after leaves. Flower: petals 3–7 mm, ± = sepals. Fruit: wings spreading 50–90°.
Common. Streambanks, canyons; < 1500 m. California Floristic Province (except Great Central Valley); to Alaska. Mar–Jun [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Acer glabrum var. glabrum
Next taxon: Acer negundo

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Acer, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=11746, accessed on Nov 20 2014

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click for enlargement Acer macrophyllum
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2005 Louis-M. Landry

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Acer macrophyllum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.