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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Mark H. Mayfield & Grady L. Webster, except as noted

Annual to shrub, tree [vine, cactus-like succulent]; monoecious or dioecious; sap clear or milky. Stem: generally branched [fleshy or spiny]. Leaf: generally simple, alternate to whorled, generally stipuled, sessile or petioled; blade entire, toothed, or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers solitary or in terminal or axillary cymes, racemes, spikes, or panicles, or (in Euphorbia) 1° inflorescence a compact, flower-like cyathium with much-reduced flowers enclosed within an involucre of fused bracts, cyathia terminal or axillary, 1 or in cyme-like arrays. Flower: unisexual, ± radial; sepals 0 or 2–6, free or fused; petals generally 0(5); stamens 1–many, free or filaments fused; ovary superior, chambers (1)3(4), styles free or fused, undivided, forked, or variously lobed. Fruit: generally capsule that splits into mericarps that then dehisce, releasing seeds. Seed: 1 per chamber; knob-like appendage sometimes present at attachment scar.
217 genera, 6000+ species: ± worldwide especially tropics; some cultivated (Aleurites, tung oil; Euphorbia species; Hevea, rubber; Ricinus). Many species ± highly TOXIC, due primarily to latex, especially if eaten or in contact with skin, eyes. [Yang et al. 2012 Taxon 61:764–789] Eremocarpus moved to Croton, Tetracoccus moved to Picrodendraceae for TJM2; Chamaesyce moved to Euphorbia here (key to genera revised by Thomas J. Rosatti). —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Euphorbiaceae

[Annual, perennial herb] shrub; sap clear; generally monoecious. Stem: central erect, generally much-branched; lateral spreading to ascending. Leaf: cauline, alternate; hairs simple, sometimes glandular. Inflorescence: spike, terminal or axillary; staminate bracts minute; pistillate bracts leaf-like, toothed. Staminate flower: sepals 4; stamens 4–8, filaments free or fused at base; nectary disk 0. Pistillate flower: sepals 3(5); nectary 0; ovary 3-chambered, styles 3, deeply cut. Fruit: ± spheric, smooth or ± lobed. Seed: smooth to pitted; scar appendage minute.
± 400 species: tropics, warm temperate worldwide. (Greek: ancient name for a kind of nettle)

A. californica Benth.
Plant < 1.5 m, hairy, ± glandular. Leaf: stipules 2–5 mm, linear; petiole < 1.5 cm; blade 1–2 cm, ovate to ± deltate, base truncate to ± lobed, margin crenate. Staminate inflorescence: 1.5–4 cm, slender. Pistillate inflorescence: < 2 cm; bracts together cup-like, hairy, margin glandular. Staminate flower: sepals ± 0.5 mm, puberulent; stamens >> sepals. Pistillate flower: sepals ± 1 mm, puberulent; ovary ± 1 mm diam, puberulent, styles ± red. Fruit: 1–3 mm diam, puberulent.
Rocky slopes, chaparral, oak woodland; < 1300 m. s South Coast (near San Diego), Peninsular Ranges, w Sonoran Desert; Baja California. Jan–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Acalypha, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015

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click for enlargement Acalypha californica
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2004 Michelle Cloud-Hughes

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Acalypha californica Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.