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MALVACEAE MALLOW FAMILY

Steven R. Hill, except as noted

Annual to tree; generally with stellate hairs, often with bristles or peltate scales; juice generally mucilage-like; bark fibrous. Leaf: generally cauline, alternate, petioled, simple [palmate-compound], generally palmate-lobed and/or veined, generally toothed, evergreen or not; stipules persistent or not. Inflorescence: head, spike, raceme, or panicle, in panicle or not (a compound panicle), or flowers >= 1 in leaf axils, or flowers generally 1 opposite a leaf or on a spur; bracts leaf-like or not; bractlets 0 or on flowering stalks, often closely subtending calyx, generally in involucel. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 5, generally fused at base, abutting in bud, larger in fruit or not, nectaries as tufts of glandular hairs at base; petals (0)5, free from each other but generally fused at base to, falling with filament tube, clawed or not; stamens 5–many, filaments fused for most of length into tube around style, staminodes 5, alternate stamens, or generally 0; pistil 1, ovary superior, stalked or generally not, chambers generally >= 5, styles or style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 1–2 × chamber number. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, [berry], or 5–many, disk- or wedge-shaped segments (= mericarps).
266 genera, 4025 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus okra; Alcea hollyhock; Gossypium cotton; Hibiscus hibiscus). [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553] Recently treated to include Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae. Mature fruit needed for identification; "outer edges" are surfaces between sides and back (abaxial surface) of segment. "Flower stalk" used instead of "pedicel," "peduncle," especially where both needed (i.e., when flowers both 1 in leaf axils and otherwise). —Scientific Editors: Steven R. Hill, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Alverson et al. 1999 Amer J Bot 86:1474–1486; Bayer et al. 1999 Bot J Linn Soc 129:267–303; Hill 2009 Madroño 56:104–111]

Key to Malvaceae

ABUTILON

Paul A. Fryxell & Steven R. Hill

Annual, perennial herb to shrub, stellate-canescent, tomentose, or bristly. Stem: generally erect (decumbent). Leaf: cordate to ovate, lobes generally 0(3), crenate or toothed. Inflorescence: panicle or flowers 1 in leaf axils; bracts leaf-like or not; involucel 0. Flower: petals yellow, yellow-orange, orange-pink, to ± red; anthers at top of filament tube; stigmas head-like. Fruit: capsule-like, ± cylindric to ± spheric, segments generally not separating fully from each other or from plant, smooth-sided, dehiscent at top, generally with beak splitting in 2, walls firm to woody. Seed: 3–6(15) per segment.
200 species: warm regions. (Arabic: possibly father of mallow) [Fryxell 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 25:24–68]
Unabridged etymology: (Arabic name, possibly from abu, father of, and Persian tula or tulha, mallow)
Unabridged references: [Borssum Waalkes 1966 Blumea 14:159–177]

Key to Abutilon

A. parvulum A. Gray DWARF ABUTILON
NATIVE
Perennial herb, from woody root. Stem: ± decumbent, 1–4 dm, much-branched, stellate-canescent, generally with few simple hairs. Leaf: blade 1–5 cm, dentate, acute to acuminate; hairs scattered, stellate. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in leaf axils. Flower: calyx 3–5 mm, << fruit, lobes reflexed in fruit; petals 3–6 mm, orange-pink to ± red. Fruit: segments generally 5(6), 3-seeded, stellate-puberulent, beaks 1–2 mm, ± erect.
2n=14. Arid, rocky slopes, shadscale scrub; 900–1300 m. Desert Mountains (Providence Mtns); to southern Colorado, western Texas, northern Mexico. Apr–May [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 27 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Abutilon, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=11601, accessed on Aug 27 2014

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click for enlargement Abutilon parvulum
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© 2005 James M. Andre

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Abutilon parvulum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.