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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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PINACEAE PINE FAMILY

J. Robert Haller, Nancy J. Vivrette, & James R. Griffin, except as noted

Shrub, tree, evergreen; monoecious. Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing ± 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; base decurrent, woody or not, persistent several years. Pollen cone: generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous. Seed cone: generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract. Seed: 2, on scale base adaxially.
10 genera, 193 species: generally northern hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > 1/2 of world's timber. —Scientific Editors: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Thieret 1993 FNANM 2:352–398]

Key to Pinaceae

ABIES FIR
Stem: young bark smooth, with resin blisters, mature bark generally thick, deeply furrowed; young branches appearing whorled; twig without persistent, peg-like leaf bases, glabrous or hairy; leaf scars smooth, ± round to elliptic; bud generally ± spheric, generally < 1 cm, ± resinous. Leaf: 2–9 cm, sessile, twisted at base to be 2-ranked, often upcurved on upper twigs, generally ± flat; adaxially with 2 ± faint, longitudinal, ± white bands or not, midrib depressed or not; abaxially with 2 ± white bands or not, midrib ridge-like or not Seed cone: erect, < 23 cm, maturing 1st year; stalk generally 0; bracts, scales deciduous; bract included or exserted, ± free from scale; axis persistent on stem, ultimately falling. Seed: with obvious resin deposits on surface; wing < 2.5 cm.
2n=24.
39 species: northern hemisphere. (Latin: silver fir) [Xiang et al. 2009 Taxon 58:141–152]
Unabridged references: [Vasek 1985 Madroño 32:65–77]

Key to Abies

A. concolor (Gordon & Glend.) Hildebr. WHITE FIR
NATIVE
Stem: trunk < 61 m, < 2.7 m wide; mature crown rounded; bark white-gray in youth, gray-brown to ± black, thick, deep-furrowed, with alternate dark, light layers in age; twig glabrous; bud resinous. Leaf: ± 2-ranked on lower branches, twisted upward on higher, 3–9 cm, ± flat; adaxial ± white bands 0; tip generally blunt or acute. Seed cone: 7–13 cm; stalk < 5 mm; bract included.
Mixed-conifer to lower red-fir forest; 900–3100 m. Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Modoc Plateau, n East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains; to central Oregon, Idaho, Colorado, northern Baja California. [Abies lowiana (Gordon) A. Murray bis] Further study needed: most California, some Rocky Mountains plants would be called Abies concolor var. lowiana (Gordon) Lemmon were that taxon recognized; relationship of southern California plants (especially from Desert Mountains) to generally Rocky Mtns Abies concolor var. concolor. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Abies concolor (Gordon & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Abies, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=11524, accessed on Sep 1 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Abies concolor Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.