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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Shrub, tree, evergreen; monoecious. Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing ± 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; base decurrent, woody or not, persistent several years. Pollen cone: generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous. Seed cone: generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract. Seed: 2, on scale base adaxially.
10 genera, 193 species: generally northern hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > 1/2 of world's timber. —Scientific Editors: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Thieret 1993 FNANM 2:352–398]
Key to Pinaceae
Stem: young bark smooth, with resin blisters, mature bark generally thick, deeply furrowed; young branches appearing whorled; twig without persistent, peg-like leaf bases, glabrous or hairy; leaf scars smooth, ± round to elliptic; bud generally ± spheric, generally < 1 cm, ± resinous. Leaf: 2–9 cm, sessile, twisted at base to be 2-ranked, often upcurved on upper twigs, generally ± flat; adaxially with 2 ± faint, longitudinal, ± white bands or not, midrib depressed or not; abaxially with 2 ± white bands or not, midrib ridge-like or not Seed cone: erect, < 23 cm, maturing 1st year; stalk generally 0; bracts, scales deciduous; bract included or exserted, ± free from scale; axis persistent on stem, ultimately falling. Seed: with obvious resin deposits on surface; wing < 2.5 cm.Key to Abies
39 species: northern hemisphere. (Latin: silver fir) [Xiang et al. 2009 Taxon 58:141–152]
Unabridged references: [Vasek 1985 Madroño 32:65–77]
Stem: trunk < 61 m, < 2.7 m wide; mature crown rounded; bark white-gray in youth, gray-brown to ± black, thick, deep-furrowed, with alternate dark, light layers in age; twig glabrous; bud resinous. Leaf: ± 2-ranked on lower branches, twisted upward on higher, 3–9 cm, ± flat; adaxial ± white bands 0; tip generally blunt or acute. Seed cone: 7–13 cm; stalk < 5 mm; bract included.
Mixed-conifer to lower red-fir forest; 900–3100 m. Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Modoc Plateau, n East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains; to central Oregon, Idaho, Colorado, northern Baja California. [Abies lowiana (Gordon) A. Murray bis] Further study needed: most California, some Rocky Mountains plants would be called Abies concolor var. lowiana (Gordon) Lemmon were that taxon recognized; relationship of southern California plants (especially from Desert Mountains) to generally Rocky Mtns Abies concolor var. concolor. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Abies concolor (Gordon & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.
Previous taxon: Abies bracteata
Next taxon: Abies grandis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 8 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Abies, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=11524, accessed on Mar 8 2014
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