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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other plants], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves ± reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1–many, basal to cauline, linear to ± round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1–many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
± 800 genera, ± 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. [Romero-Gonzalez et al. 2002 FNANM 26:490–651] —Scientific Editors: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California. Cornell Univ.]
Key to Orchidaceae
Rhizomes slender. Leaf: cauline, 2, ± opposite, generally ovate to ± round. Inflorescence: raceme, ± open; flower bract < flower. Flower: sepals ± equal, green to ± purple, lower spreading; lateral petals ± like sepals, ascending to erect; lip generally > sepals, petals, spreading to descending, generally wedge-shaped, flat, tip entire to deeply lobed; column subcylindric, straight to curved, anther at tip. Fruit: generally spreading.Key to Listera
± 25 species: temperate, arctic North America, Eurasia. (Martin Lister, English naturalist, 1638–1711) [Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids Calif. Cornell Univ] Names available in Neottia (earlier name), with same epithets, for all California taxa if Listera treated as congeneric with that genus.
Previous taxon: Goodyera oblongifolia
Next taxon: Listera banksiana
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 9 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Listera, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=10952, accessed on Mar 9 2014
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