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ORCHIDACEAE ORCHID FAMILY

Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings, except as noted

Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other plants], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves ± reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1–many, basal to cauline, linear to ± round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1–many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
± 800 genera, ± 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. [Romero-Gonzalez et al. 2002 FNANM 26:490–651] Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431–445); study needed. —Scientific Editors: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California. Cornell Univ.]

Key to Orchidaceae

EPIPACTIS
Leaf: cauline, alternate, gradually reduced upward, lanceolate to wide-ovate, with > 1 lengthwise fold, green, white, or pink. Inflorescence: ± 1-sided, open; flowers 4+; flower bract ± leaf-like. Flower: sepals ± alike, lanceolate to ovate, lower spreading to downcurved; lateral petals ascending or curved forward, ± = sepals in shape, color, lip not spurred, abruptly narrowed at ± middle, of 2 very different parts, proximally concave to ± pouch-like, distally grooved to ± not; column curved over lip. Fruit: spreading to pendent.
± 25 species: North America, Eurasia, northern Africa. (Greek: ancient name)

Key to Epipactis

Previous taxon: Cypripedium parviflorum var. makasin
Next taxon: Epipactis gigantea

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Epipactis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=10929, accessed on Jul 23 2014

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