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CARYOPHYLLACEAE PINK FAMILY

Ronald L. Hartman & Richard K. Rabeler, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb; rarely dioecious (Silene), taprooted or rhizome generally slender. Leaf: simple, generally opposite (subwhorled), entire, pairs at nodes often ± connected at bases; stipules generally 0; petiole generally 0. Inflorescence: generally cyme, generally open; flowers 1–many; involucre generally 0 (present in Dianthus, Petrorhagia). Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium often present but obscure; sepals (4)5, ± free or fused into a tube, margins generally scarious, more so on inner 2 or not, tube generally not scarious, awns generally 0; petals (4)5 or 0, generally tapered to base (or with claw long, limb expanded), entire to 2–several-lobed, limb generally without scale-like appendages adaxially, generally without ear-like lobes at base; stamens generally 10, generally fertile, generally free, generally from ovary base; nectaries 0 or 5; ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, placentas basal or free-central, styles 2–5 with 0 branches or 1 with 2–3 branches. Fruit: capsule or utricle (rarely ± dehiscent), generally sessile. Seed: appendage generally 0 (present in Moehringia).
83 or 89 genera, 3000 species: widespread, especially arctic, alpine, temperate northern hemisphere; some cultivated (Agrostemma, Arenaria, Cerastium, Dianthus, Gypsophila, Lychnis, Sagina, Saponaria, Silene, Vaccaria). [Rabeler & Hartman 2005 FNANM 5:3–215] Apetalous Caryophyllaceae can also be keyed in Rabeler & Hartman 2005 FNANM 5:5–8. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Caryophyllaceae

DIANTHUS CARNATION, PINK
Annual to perennial herb, erect, taprooted or rhizomed. Leaf: linear to oblanceolate; vein 1 or lateral 2 less prominent. Inflorescence: terminal; few- to many-flowered, dense, or 1–few-flowered, open; involucral bracts 2–6, linear to ovate; pedicels 0–25 mm. Flower: sepals 5, fused, glabrous to hairy, tube prominent, 1.3–2.2 cm, 1.8–3.3 mm diam, ± cylindric, veins 20–45[60], lobes 3–8 mm, < tube, triangular to lanceolate; petals 5, 13–24 mm, claw long, limb irregularly toothed or divided to narrow segments, unappendaged; stamen bases fused with petal bases to ovary stalk; styles 2, 5–12 mm. Fruit: capsule, ± tubular; stalk 1–4 mm; teeth 4, ascending. Seed: many, black.
320 species: Eurasia, southern Africa. (Greek: divine flower, from beauty or fragrance of flower) [Rabeler & Hartman 2005 FNANM 5:159–162]

Key to Dianthus

Previous taxon: Cerastium viride
Next taxon: Dianthus armeria subsp. armeria

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Dianthus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=10431, accessed on Oct 1 2014

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