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CARYOPHYLLACEAE PINK FAMILY

Ronald L. Hartman & Richard K. Rabeler, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb; rarely dioecious (Silene), taprooted or rhizome generally slender. Leaf: simple, generally opposite (subwhorled), entire, pairs at nodes often ± connected at bases; stipules generally 0; petiole generally 0. Inflorescence: generally cyme, generally open; flowers 1–many; involucre generally 0 (present in Dianthus, Petrorhagia). Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium often present but obscure; sepals (4)5, ± free or fused into a tube, margins generally scarious, more so on inner 2 or not, tube generally not scarious, awns generally 0; petals (4)5 or 0, generally tapered to base (or with claw long, limb expanded), entire to 2–several-lobed, limb generally without scale-like appendages adaxially, generally without ear-like lobes at base; stamens generally 10, generally fertile, generally free, generally from ovary base; nectaries 0 or 5; ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, placentas basal or free-central, styles 2–5 with 0 branches or 1 with 2–3 branches. Fruit: capsule or utricle (rarely ± dehiscent), generally sessile. Seed: appendage generally 0 (present in Moehringia).
83 or 89 genera, 3000 species: widespread, especially arctic, alpine, temperate northern hemisphere; some cultivated (Agrostemma, Arenaria, Cerastium, Dianthus, Gypsophila, Lychnis, Sagina, Saponaria, Silene, Vaccaria). [Rabeler & Hartman 2005 FNANM 5:3–215] Apetalous Caryophyllaceae can also be keyed in Rabeler & Hartman 2005 FNANM 5:5–8. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Caryophyllaceae

CARDIONEMA SANDMAT
Perennial herb, ± prostrate, taprooted. Leaf: stipules 4–8 mm, lanceolate to ovate, scarious, ± entire, white; blade needle-like; vein 1. Inflorescence: axillary; flowers 1–5, ± sessile. Flower: hypanthium cup-shaped, not abruptly expanded above; sepals 5, free, 1.2–2.8 mm (except awn), oblong to obovate, densely woolly, margin scarious below, awn 1.5–4 mm, stout, spine-tipped; petals 5, 0.3–0.5 mm, scale-like; stamens 3–5, on hypanthium rim; styles 2, 0.2 mm. Fruit: utricle, elliptic. Seed: 1, tan.
6 species: western North America, western South America. (Greek: heart thread, from stamen shape) [Hartman 2005 FNANM 5:45–46]

Previous taxon: Arenaria serpyllifolia var. serpyllifolia
Next taxon: Cardionema ramosissimum

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Cardionema, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=10428, accessed on Apr 20 2014

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