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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Annual to shrub, tree [vine, cactus-like succulent]; monoecious or dioecious; sap clear or milky. Stem: generally branched [fleshy or spiny]. Leaf: generally simple, alternate to whorled, generally stipuled, sessile or petioled; blade entire, toothed, or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers solitary or in terminal or axillary cymes, racemes, spikes, or panicles, or (in Euphorbia) 1° inflorescence a compact, flower-like cyathium with much-reduced flowers enclosed within an involucre of fused bracts, cyathia terminal or axillary, 1 or in cyme-like arrays. Flower: unisexual, ± radial; sepals 0 or 2–6, free or fused; petals generally 0(5); stamens 1–many, free or filaments fused; ovary superior, chambers (1)3(4), styles free or fused, undivided, forked, or variously lobed. Fruit: generally capsule that splits into mericarps that then dehisce, releasing seeds. Seed: 1 per chamber; knob-like appendage sometimes present at attachment scar.
217 genera, 6000+ species: ± worldwide especially tropics; some cultivated (Aleurites, tung oil; Euphorbia species; Hevea, rubber; Ricinus). Many species ± highly TOXIC, due primarily to latex, especially if eaten or in contact with skin, eyes. [Yang et al. 2012 Taxon 61:764–789] Eremocarpus moved to Croton, Tetracoccus moved to Picrodendraceae for TJM2; Chamaesyce moved to Euphorbia here (key to genera revised by Thomas J. Rosatti). —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Euphorbiaceae
Perennial herb < 0.5 m; hairs stinging, nettle-like; monoecious. Stem: spreading to erect, branched, sometimes twining. Leaf: cauline, alternate; stipules persistent. Inflorescence: raceme, terminal or opposite leaf; staminate flowers distal to pistillate flowers. Staminate flower: sepals 4–5; stamens 3–6; nectary 0. Pistillate flower: sepals 5[4–8]; ovary 3-chambered, styles simple, ± fused at base. Fruit: ± spheric. Seed: smooth or ± rough; scar not appendaged.
± 100 species: tropics, warm temperate worldwide. (Tragus, name for Hieronymus Bock, German herbalist, 1498–1554) [Miller & Webster 1967 Rhodora 69:241–305]
Previous taxon: Stillingia spinulosa
Next taxon: Tragia ramosa
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Tragia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=10101, accessed on Apr 20 2014
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