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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

ALLIUM ONION, GARLIC
Outer bulb coat generally brown to gray, inner generally white. Stem: scapose, cylindric, triangular in ×-section, or flat. Leaf: basal, 1–5[12] per stem, linear, cylindric, channeled, or flat, generally withering from tip before flower. Inflorescence: umbel, flowers 3–many, rarely all or in part replaced by bulblets; bracts generally 2–4, obvious, ± fused, scarious. Flower: perianth parts ± free, generally with darker or contrasting midvein, outer generally wider; filaments fused into a ring; ovary with 0, 3, or 6 crests, ovules generally 2 per chamber. Seed: obovoid, generally unappendaged.
700 species: generally northern temperate, especially California. (Latin: garlic) [McNeal & Jacobsen 2002 FNANM 26:224–276] Replanting bulbs after study essential for survival of plant; shape, arrangement of cells of outer bulb coat (outer bulb coat sculpture) generally important in identification, generally determined only with magnification; color of outer bulb coat may be masked by substrate; stem lengths from top of bulb to base of inflorescence, not from substrate surface.

Key to Allium

1. Bulblets present in inflorescence, present at bulb bases; disturbed places

2. Bulb 1–2 cm diam; leaves 20–60 cm, 2–4 mm wide, hollow below middle ..... A. vineale

2' Bulb (1.5)3–8 cm diam; leaves 20–100 cm, 5–20 mm diam, solid ..... [A. sativum]

1' Bulblets not present in inflorescence, present at bulb bases or on rhizomes or not; disturbed places or not

3. Leaves 1 per stem, cylindric; ovary crests 6, obvious, ± triangular

4. Stigma lobes ± 0

5. Stamens exserted; perianth parts 5–9 mm, inner > outer, margins ± irregular to jagged; stem 20–50 cm ..... A. sanbornii var. sanbornii

5' Stamens included; perianth parts 8–20 mm, ± equal, entire; stem generally < 20 cm

6. Plants of Desert Mountains, flowers white; outer bulb coat sculpture ± obvious, cells transversely elongate, intricately contorted; Desert Mountains ..... A. nevadense

6' Plants not of Desert Mountains or flowers not white; outer bulb coat sculpture 0 or cells ± square, in 2–3 rows basally, or obscurely polygonal

7. Perianth parts 8–12 mm; pedicels slender, > flowers ..... A. atrorubens

8. Perianth parts generally deep red-purple (white), lanceolate, appearing long-acuminate by inrolled margins ..... var. atrorubens

8' Perianth parts pale pink, dark-veined, ± ovate, acute to acuminate ..... var. cristatum

7' Perianth parts 12–20 mm; pedicels stout, generally < flowers

9. Perianth parts lance-linear, long-tapered; bulblets 1–2, stalked, at bulb base; Transverse Ranges, w Peninsular Ranges ..... A. monticola

9' Perianth parts lanceolate, acute; bulblets 0; n San Bernardino Mountains, Mojave Desert ..... A. parishii

4' Stigma lobes 3, often slender, recurved

10. Stamens exserted or ± at same level as perianth

11. Inner perianth parts 1.5 × outer; ovary crests entire or notched ..... A. sanbornii var. congdonii

11' Inner perianth parts ± = outer; ovary crests irregularly dentate to deeply cut ..... A. howellii

12. Stem (10)± 20(35) cm, slender; flowers generally 10–30; perianth generally pink to lavender (white); ovary crests purple; flower Mar–Apr; s Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, San Joaquin Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges ..... var. howellii

12' Stem 20–60 cm, stout; flowers generally > 50; perianth generally white; ovary crests white or green; flower Apr–Jun; Inner South Coast Ranges, n Western Transverse Ranges

13. Stamens exserted 0–2 mm; n Western Transverse Ranges ..... var. clokeyi

13' Stamens exserted 2–4 mm; Inner South Coast Ranges ..... var. sanbenitense

10' Stamens included

14. Perianth parts (at least inner) dentate or jagged

15. Stem 25–40 cm ..... A. jepsonii

15' Stem 5–20 cm

16. Outer bulb coats brown to gray; perianth ± spreading, tips reflexed, inner parts jagged ..... A. abramsii

16' Outer bulb coats red-brown; perianth erect, ± straight, inner parts dentate near tip ..... A. denticulatum

14' Perianth parts ± entire

17. Ovary crests entire, notched, or jagged, not dentate to deeply cut

18. Perianth 10–18 mm, maroon or deep red-purple

19. Perianth deep red-purple, tips ± spreading to ± erect; plants of serpentine, se San Francisco Bay Area (Mount Hamilton Range) ..... A. sharsmithiae

19' Perianth maroon near tips, white or ± green basally, tips reflexed; plants not of serpentine, s High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area ..... A. shevockii

18' Perianth 6–9 mm, white to pink, in age ± red

20. Inflorescence dense, pedicels straight in fruit; perianth parts elliptic to ovate, obtuse to acute ..... A. munzii

20' Inflorescence open, pedicels curved in fruit; perianth parts lanceolate, acuminate ..... A. parryi

17' Ovary crests dentate to deeply cut

21. Perianth dark red-purple, tips generally recurved to spreading ..... A. fimbriatum var. fimbriatum

21' Perianth white, pink, or lavender, midveins darker, tips erect

22. Flowers (6)8–12 mm ..... A. fimbriatum

23. Stem slender, 10–25 cm; plants not of serpentine; East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert ..... var. mohavense

23' Stem stout, 10–37 cm; plants of serpentine; c Inner North Coast Ranges ..... var. purdyi

22' Flowers generally 6–9 mm

24. Stem slender, 7–20 cm; perianth erect; San Francisco Bay Area (Mount Hamilton Range), South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges ..... A. diabolense

24' Stem stout, 25–50 cm; perianth spreading; c Sierra Nevada Foothills (Tuolumne Co.) ..... A. tuolumnense

3' Leaves >= 2 per stem (if 1, leaf flat or channeled); ovary crests 6, obvious, ± triangular, or ± 0

25. Stem 3–30 mm diam, hollow, inflated below middle; bulb generally 5–10 cm diam; flowers 100–500 ..... [A. cepa]

25' Stem < 3 mm diam unless flattened and/or winged, solid or hollow, not inflated below middle; bulb < 3 cm diam; flowers 5–150

26. Bulbs oblong or oblong-ovoid, clustered on stout rhizome

27. Stem 50–100 cm; perianth parts narrowly lanceolate, acuminate; stamens exserted ..... A. validum

27' Stem 10–40 cm; perianth parts narrowly ovate, acute; stamens including

28. Ovary topped with a low, papillate cap covering lobes ..... A. haematochiton

28' Ovary crests 6, obvious, triangular, margins papillate or not ..... A. marvinii

26' Bulbs ovoid to ± spheric, not clustered on short rhizome

29. Ovary crests 6, obvious, triangular; bulblets > 3, generally << bulb, generally clustered at bulb base or on rhizome

30. Leaves generally withered in flower; perianth red-purple, rigid-keeled, ± shiny in fruit, tip margins inrolled, parts with a purple crescent adaxially just above base ..... A. campanulatum

30' Leaves generally not withered in flower; perianth white or pink to rose-purple, not keeled, papery in fruit, tip margins ± flat, parts without darker crescent adaxially

31. Perianth parts lanceolate, acuminate; High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... A. bisceptrum

31' Perianth parts ovate to elliptic, acute; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, s High Sierra Nevada ..... A. membranaceum

29' Ovary crests 0 or obscure, not triangular; bulblets 1–3, ± = bulb, within bulb coats or on rhizome

32. Leaves flat or widely channeled, ± sickle-shaped; plant in fruit dry, breaking at ground

33. Outer bulb coat sculpture ± net-like throughout

34. Outer bulb coat cells rectangular, transversely elongate, in ± regular rows

35. Perianth parts lance-linear ..... A. anceps

35' Perianth parts ovate to oblanceolate

36. Stem 15–20 cm, inflorescence held well above ground; pedicel > flower ..... A. lemmonii

36' Stem 3–10 cm, inflorescence held near ground; pedicel ± = flower ..... A. punctum

34' Outer bulb coat cells ± square or polygonal, if transversely elongate then curved and not in regular rows

37. Outer bulb coat cells curved, ± transversely elongate ..... A. tribracteatum

37' Outer bulb coat cells ± rectangular, ± transversely elongate, square, or polygonal ..... A. obtusum

38. Leaves 1 per stem; perianth parts pink, lanceolate, acute ..... var. conspicuum

38' Leaves 1–2 per stem; perianth parts white, oblong-elliptic, obtuse ..... var. obtusum

33' Outer bulb coat sculpture 0 or cells ± square, in 2–3 rows basally

39. Stem cylindric or ± flat, not winged

40. Stamens well including

41. Leaves straight or ± sickle-shaped; flowers 20–30; Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, s High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Inner South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains ..... A. cratericola

41' Leaves sickle-shaped; flowers generally 5–10; Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... A. parvum (2)

40' Stamens exserted or ± at same level as perianth

42. Leaves 2 per stem ..... A. yosemitense

42' Leaves 1 per stem

43. Filaments smooth ..... A. burlewii

43' Filaments bumpy or warty near base ..... A. hoffmanii

39' Stem ± flat, generally winged above

44. Perianth parts lance-linear, long-acuminate; stamens exserted ..... A. platycaule

44' Perianth parts lanceolate to ovate, obtuse to long-acuminate; stamens including

45. Leaves generally 6–8 mm wide; perianth parts 9–15 mm, long-acuminate ..... A. falcifolium

45' Leaves < 6 mm wide; perianth parts 6–10 mm, obtuse to acute

46. Perianth parts lanceolate, acute, appearing acuminate by inrolled margins ..... A. tolmiei var. tolmiei

46' Perianth parts widely lanceolate to ovate, obtuse (tip margins ± flat)

47. Inner bulb coats white; perianth parts not keeled in fruit ..... A. parvum (2)

47' Inner bulb coats generally pink to red; perianth parts keeled in fruit ..... A. siskiyouense

32' Leaves narrowly channeled to ± cylindric, if flat or widely channeled, not sickle-shaped; plant in fruit dry or not, not breaking at ground

48. Outer bulb coat sculpture 0 or obscure

49. Bulb symmetric, present at flower; rhizomes 0

50. Longest inflorescence bracts >> pedicels; flower 4.5–7 mm ..... A. paniculatum var. paniculatum

50' Longest inflorescence bracts <= pedicels; flower 7–18 mm

51. Inflorescence not ± 1-sided; flowers erect; perianth parts elliptic, obtuse ..... A. neapolitanum

51' Inflorescence generally ± 1-sided; flowers pendent; perianth parts lanceolate, acute ..... A. triquetrum

49' Bulb symmetric or not, ± 0 at flower; rhizomes obscure or obvious

52. Rhizomes obvious, generally 3–5 cm; leaves widely channeled or ± flat, keeled; perianth parts ovate to obovate, ascending, entire ..... A. unifolium

52' Rhizomes obscure, < 2 cm; leaves ± cylindric; perianth parts ± lanceolate, erect, at least inner serrate ..... A. bolanderi

53. Bulb oblique-ovoid, not tuber-like, outer coat breaking with serrate edges; perianth parts 8–12 mm, narrowly ovate ..... var. bolanderi

53' Bulb oblique-oblong, tuber-like, outer coat breaking with irregular edges; perianth parts 9–14 mm, narrowly lanceolate ..... var. mirabile

48' Outer bulb coat sculpture obvious, ± net-like

54. Outer bulb coat cells square, polygonal, in regular rows, not in ± herringbone pattern, not ± contorted

55. Perianth parts 8–15 mm, spreading (or tips reflexed), inner dentate ..... A. acuminatum

55' Perianth parts 4–9 mm, erect or spreading, entire ..... A. lacunosum

56. Stem 10–25 cm; inflorescence dense, pedicel 0.7–1.5 × flower

57. Leaves generally < stem; stem 15–25 cm; flowers 5–7 mm; s Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, w Mojave Desert ..... var. kernense

57' Leaves > stem; stem 10–20 cm; flowers 6–9 mm; n Central Coast, s San Joaquin Valley, South Coast Ranges, South Coast, n Channel Islands ..... var. lacunosum

56' Stem 15–35 cm; inflorescence open, pedicel 1.5–3.5 × flower

58. Bracts 2; flower 6–8 mm; Western Transverse Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert ..... var. davisiae

58' Bracts 3; flower 4–6 mm; South Coast Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges ..... var. micranthum

54' Outer bulb coat cells transversely elongate, in ± herringbone pattern, or ± contorted

59. Outer bulb coat cells in obscure, wavy, herringbone pattern; perianth parts spreading, outer ± = inner

60. Stem 5–17 cm; perianth parts erect in fruit; flowers persistent — c Central Coast ..... A. hickmanii

60' Stem 15–50 cm; perianth parts folded over fruit; flowers, pedicels deciduous

61. Ovary crests 6, lateral, ± rectangular; inflorescence dense, pedicels 0.7–2 × flower ..... A. amplectens

61' Ovary crests 0 or 3, central, minute; inflorescence open, pedicels 1.5–4 × flower

62. Leaves 1–3(4) mm wide, widely channeled to cylindric, not keeled; inner bulb coats light yellow; perianth translucent in fruit ..... A. hyalinum

62' Leaves (3)4–6 mm wide, widely channeled or flat, keeled; inner bulb coats white; perianth ± opaque, papery in fruit ..... A. praecox

59' Outer bulb coat cells in obvious, not wavy, herringbone pattern; perianth parts ± erect, outer > inner

63. Perianth parts folded over ovary in fruit; flowers, pedicels deciduous ..... A. serra

63' Perianth parts erect, rigid in fruit; flowers, pedicels persistent

64. Leaves 3–6 per stem, curved to curled; inflorescence dense, pedicels erect, 0.7–2 × flower; on or near sea cliffs ..... A. dichlamydeum

64' Leaves 2–3 per stem, straight to ± curved; inflorescence open, pedicels spreading, 1–3 × flower; not on or near sea cliffs

65. Inner perianth part margins dentate, curled ..... A. crispum

65' Inner perianth part margins entire to dentate, not curled ..... A. peninsulare

66. Leaves curved; flowers 8–12 mm; stigma minute, entire; Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area ..... var. franciscanum

66' Leaves straight; flowers 10–15 mm; stigma 3-lobed or head-like; widespread ..... var. peninsulare

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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