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Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

SALIX WILLOW

George W. Argus


Shrub, tree; dioecious; bud scale 1, not sticky, margins generally fused (or free, overlapping). Stem: twigs generally flexible, generally not glaucous. Leaf: generally alternate; stipules generally vestigial on first leaves, leaf-like on later; mature blade linear to broadly obovate, entire to toothed, generally ± hairy; petiole glands generally 0. Inflorescence: catkin, blooming before, with, or after leaves, sessile or terminating ± short leafy or bracted shoot ("on leafy shoot" or "on bracted shoot," "catkin length" including leafless or bractless part of subtending shoot); 1 flower bract subtending each flower, deciduous or persistent, brown, black, or 2-colored (paler proximally, darker distally; darker generally ± brown). Flower: perianth reduced to adaxial nectary (rarely also with abaxial nectary, then free or fused into shallow cup). Staminate flower: stamens (1)2(10); nectary generally 1. Pistillate flower: ovary stalked or sessile, style generally 1, stigmas 2, each 2-lobed, deciduous or persistent; nectary generally 1, generally rod-like. Fruit: valves 2.
± 450 species: ± worldwide, especially northern temperate, arctic. (Latin: ancient name) [Argus 1997 Madroño 44:115–136] Difficult, highly variable, many hybrids. Not all specimens key easily; sprouts, other extreme forms not included in keys, may require field comparisons. Studies of chromosome numbers, hybridization needed. Inclusion of Salix sessilifolia Nutt. in TJM (1993) based on misidentification of plants belonging to Salix melanopsis. Fruit length as given throughout excludes the stalk (stipe). Hair lengths: minute, < ± 0.5 mm; short, ± 0.5 mm; long, > ± 0.5 mm. Salix commutata Bebb, treated as misapplied to Salix eastwoodiae in TJM (1993), may occur in northern California mountains; Salix bonplandiana expected in s-most California. For alternate treatments, see Dorn (e.g., 2000 Brittonia 52:1–19).
Unabridged references: [Dorn, R. D. 1995. A taxonomic study of Salix section Cordatae subsection Luteae (Salicaceae). Brittonia 47: 160–174. Dorn, R. D. 1998. A taxonomic study of Salix section Longifoliae (Salicaceae) Brittonia 50: 193–210. Dorn, R. D. 2000. A taxonomic study of Salix sections Mexicanae and Viminella subsection Sitchenses (Salicaceae) in North America. Brittonia 52: 1–19.]

Key to Salix

Key to Vegetative Plants

1. Shrub < 0.2 m, forming mats by rhizomes or adventitious roots, alpine

2. Young leaves glabrous; mature leaf blade 6–22 mm, abaxially strongly net-veined, both surfaces glabrous; plant forming mats by rhizomes ..... S. nivalis

2' Young leaves hairy; mature leaf blade 19–44 mm, abaxially not strongly net-veined, both surfaces sparsely soft-shaggy-hairy or glabrous in age; plant forming mats by adventitious roots ..... S. petrophila

1' Shrub to tree, > 0.2 m, not forming mats, not alpine

3. Tree; bud scale margins free, overlapping

4. Leaf blade not glaucous abaxially; twigs ± yellow or yellow-green or ± tan; young leaves white-hairy ..... S. gooddingii

4' Leaf blade glaucous abaxially; twigs ± tan; young leaves glabrous or white- or white-and-rusty-hairy ..... S. laevigata

3' Low shrub to tree; bud scale margins fused

5. Petiole generally with glands

6. Tree 7–25 m; twigs pendent or erect, flexible or ± brittle at base; petiole tomentose or silky

7. Stems, twigs erect to spreading; twigs ± yellow or gray to ± tan, densely silky; petiole silky ..... S. alba

7' Stems, twigs pendent; twigs ± tan, short-silky to velvety, glabrous in age (except at nodes); petiole tomentose ..... S. babylonica (2)

6' Shrub to tree, 0.6–10 m; twigs erect, flexible or brittle at base; petiole glabrous or long-soft-wavy-hairy ..... S. lasiandra

5' Petiole glands 0

8. Leaf blade abaxially not glaucous or surface obscured by hair

9. Leaf entire or ± sparsely short-slender-serrate; plant clonal by root-shoots; petiole glabrous or silky, 2–6 mm

10. Leaf blade linear, length 10–23 × width; young leaves short-silky ..... S. exigua (2)

10' Leaf blade linear to narrow-elliptic or -oblanceolate, length 2.8–8.5 × width; young leaves long-soft-wavy-hairy, tomentose, or velvety ..... S. melanopsis

9' Leaf entire to finely serrate; plant not clonal by root-shoots; petiole soft-shaggy-hairy, tomentose, or velvety, 3–17 mm

11. Leaf blade margins strongly rolled under, especially basally; young leaves abaxially densely silky or woolly ..... S. sitchensis (2)

11' Leaf blade margins flat or ± rolled under; young leaves abaxially soft-shaggy-hairy, tomentose, silky, or woolly

12. Young leaves shaggy-hairy; mature leaf blade abaxially glabrous or soft-shaggy-hairy, adaxially shiny to highly glossy ..... S. boothii

12' Young leaves densely tomentose, silky, or woolly; mature leaf blade abaxially tomentose, long-soft-wavy-hairy, woolly-tomentose, silky, or glabrous in age, adaxially dull ..... S. eastwoodiae

8' Leaf blade abaxially glaucous or surface obscured by hair

13. Leaf blade linear, length 6.6–25 × width; plant clonal by root-shoots ..... S. exigua (2)

13' Leaf blade narrowly elliptic or wider, length 1.3–8(14.4) × width; plant not clonal by root-shoots (but sometimes clonal by layering or stem fragmentation)

14. Leaves (at least some) ± opposite ..... S. purpurea

14' Leaves alternate

15. Tree 7–25 m; twigs pendent ..... S. babylonica (2)

15' Shrub to tree, 0.2–10 m; twigs erect or decumbent

16. Leaf blade margins generally strongly rolled under, at least basally

17. Leaf blade adaxially generally highly glossy ..... S. lasiolepis (9)

17' Leaf blade adaxially shiny or dull

18. Leaf blade abaxially tomentose or woolly or generally sparsely silky, often with white and rusty hairs, glaucous, adaxially shiny ..... S. scouleriana

18' Leaf blade abaxially very densely silky or woolly, surface obscured by white hairs, adaxially dull ..... S. sitchensis (2)

16' Leaf blade margins flat or ± rolled under

19. Leaf blade adaxially highly glossy

20. Leaf blade abaxially moderately to densely shaggy, tomentose, or woolly, at least on midrib and veins, rarely ± glabrous

21. Twigs generally thinly glaucous; leaf blade abaxially generally woolly or shaggy-hairy, 18–55 wide ..... S. hookeriana

21' Twigs not glaucous; leaf blade abaxially generally tomentose, 6–32 mm wide ..... S. lasiolepis (9)

20' Leaf blade abaxially glabrous (or soon becoming so) to sparsely silky

22. Petiole tomentose or velvety; leaf blade 35–125 mm; twig hairs spreading; leaf blade glands adaxially submarginal or nearer blade center; 0–2500 m ..... S. lasiolepis (9)

22' Petiole sparsely soft-shaggy-hairy; leaf blade 19–75(115) mm; twig hairs appressed or curved toward stem; leaf blade glands generally marginal; 2500–4000 m ..... S. planifolia

19' Leaf blade adaxially dull to shiny

23. Leaf blade abaxially glabrous, downy, or soft-shaggy-hairy

24. Leaf blade white- or white-and-rusty-hairy

25. Stipules generally leaf-like; young leaves, mature blades densely silky or generally short-tomentose; 0–2500 m

26. Stipule tip acute; leaf glands submarginal or distinctly on adaxial surface; young leaves thick, yellow-green (or ± red) ..... S. lasiolepis (9)

26' Stipule tip convex to rounded; leaf glands marginal; young leaves thin, ± red ..... S. tracyi

25' Stipules 0 or vestigial on first leaves, leaf-like on later leaves or not; young leaves, mature blades generally densely silky; 1400–3600 m

27. Leaf blade persistently long-(often white-)hairy, 32–89 mm; petiole 3–9 mm; stipules generally 0 or vestigial ..... S. geyeriana (5)

27' Leaf blade in age ± glabrous or sparsely short-(generally rusty-)hairy, 44–110 mm; petiole 5–16 mm; stipules vestigial on first leaves, leaf-like on later ..... S. lemmonii (3)

24' Leaf blade white-hairy or glabrous

28. Stipules 0 or vestigial on first leaves, leaf-like on later

29. Young leaves, mature blades generally densely silky; twigs generally glaucous; 1450–3600 m ..... S. geyeriana (5)

29' Young leaves, mature blades densely silky or generally short-tomentose; twigs not glaucous; 0–2500 m ..... S. lasiolepis (9)

28' Stipules leaf-like (vestigial or not in Salix bebbiana)

30. Leaf blade abaxially generally with raised, net veins, length 1.7–3.9 × width, entire to crenate; young leaves densely silky — n Modoc Plateau ..... S. bebbiana (2)

30' Leaf blade abaxially smooth, length 2.2–9.6 × width, generally finely serrate (entire or not in Salix lasiolepis); young leaves generally glabrous or sparsely hairy (densely silky in Salix lasiolepis)

31. Leaf base wedge-shaped or convex; blade shiny adaxially; twigs tomentose, glabrous in age ..... S. lasiolepis (9)

31' Leaf base rounded, subcordate, cordate, or convex; blade dull adaxially; twigs glabrous to sparsely long-soft-wavy-hairy

32. Twigs yellow-gray or yellow- or gray-brown, not peeling ..... S. lutea

32' Twigs generally ± tan, peeling

33. Leaf blade strap-shaped to narrowly elliptic, length 2.9–6.4 × width, base convex to subcordate; stipule tip rounded to acuminate ..... S. ligulifolia

33' Leaf blade narrowly oblong or lanceolate to obovate, length 2.4–4.5 × width, base rounded to cordate; stipule tip convex to rounded ..... S. prolixa

23' Leaf blade abaxially long-soft-wavy-hairy, tomentose, silky, or velvety

34. Twigs glaucous

35. Leaf blade dull adaxially

36. Leaf blade abaxially very densely white- or white-and-rusty-silky; young leaves short-silky; twigs brittle at base ..... S. drummondiana (2)

36' Leaf blade abaxially sparsely to moderately densely white-silky; young leaves long-silky; twigs flexible at base ..... S. orestera (3)

35' Leaf blade shiny adaxially

37. Leaf blade hairier abaxially than adaxially (except midrib abaxially ± glabrous), generally densely white-silky to -tomentose; young leaves short-silky ..... S. drummondiana (2)

37' Leaf blade equally hairy abaxially and adaxially (midrib abaxially generally ± as hairy as blade), white-, rusty-, or white-and-rusty-hairy, glabrous in age or not; young leaves short- or long-silky

38. Leaf blade hairs long, generally white or white and rusty, persistent; petiole 2–9 mm; stipules generally 0 or vestigial ..... S. geyeriana (5)

38' Leaf blade hairs short, generally rusty, or in age 0; petiole 5–16 mm; stipules vestigial on first leaves, leaf-like on later leaves ..... S. lemmonii (3)

34' Twigs not glaucous

39. Young leaves sparsely or moderately hairy; petiole puberulent; twigs soft-shaggy-hairy — n Modoc Plateau ..... S. bebbiana (2)

39' Young leaves very densely hairy; petiole tomentose, silky, or velvety; twigs soft-shaggy-hairy, tomentose, silky, velvety, or glabrous in age

40. Leaf blade elliptic to obovate, length 1.3–2.8 × width; petiole velvety or tomentose; young leaves velvety or silky; leaf tip acute to convex ..... S. delnortensis

40' Leaf blade linear to oblanceolate, length 2.8–7.3 × width; petiole tomentose (or silky or velvety in Salix jepsonii); young leaves silky; leaf tip acute to acuminate (convex or not in Salix jepsonii)

41. Shrub < 1 m, subalpine; leaf blade 10–95 mm; 2100–4000 m

42. Leaf blade 10–20 mm, shiny adaxially; petiole silky; young leaves very densely hairy; rare, c High Sierra Nevada (e slope, Mono Co.) ..... S. brachycarpa var. brachycarpa

42' Leaf blade 35–95 mm, dull adaxially; petiole soft-shaggy-hairy; young leaves long-silky; not rare, Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada ..... S. orestera (3)

41' Shrub > 1 m, subalpine and not; leaf blade 32–144 mm; 0–2800 m (to 3400–3600 m in Salix geyeriana, Salix jepsonii, Salix lemmonii)

43. Leaf blade white-and-rusty-hairy

44. Stipules generally leaf-like (or vestigial); young leaves, mature blades densely silky or generally short-tomentose; 0–2800 m ..... S. lasiolepis (9)

44' Stipules 0 or vestigial on first leaves, generally leaf-like on later; young leaves, mature blades generally densely silky; 1450–3600 m

45. Leaf blade hairs long (generally white or white and rusty), persistent; petiole 2–9 mm; stipules generally 0 or vestigial ..... S. geyeriana (5)

45' Leaf blade hairs short (generally rusty) or 0 in age; petiole 5–16 mm; stipules vestigial on first leaves, leaf-like on later ..... S. lemmonii (3)

43' Leaf blade white-hairy

46. Petiole silky, tomentose, or velvety

47. Leaf blade generally densely silky on both surfaces, 32–89 mm; stipules generally 0; petiole velvety ..... S. geyeriana (5)

47' Leaf blade generally glabrous in age or abaxially hairier, 35–144 mm; stipules generally leaf-like; petiole silky, tomentose, or velvety

48. Leaf blade abaxially densely silky, adaxially dark green; margin of first leaves on shoot gland-dotted ..... S. jepsonii

48' Leaf blade abaxially sparsely or moderately hairy, adaxially not dark green; margin of first leaves on shoot glandless ..... S. lasiolepis (9)

46' Petiole tomentose or soft-shaggy-hairy

49. Leaf blade on both surfaces silky; stipule tip generally acute ..... S. orestera (3)

49' Leaf blade abaxially tomentose, adaxially long-soft-wavy-hairy or tomentose; stipule tip generally convex

50. Leaf blade abaxially generally densely tomentose; twigs generally velvety; on serpentine ..... S. breweri

50' Leaf blade abaxially generally sparsely or moderately tomentose; twigs generally sparsely tomentose; on serpentine or not ..... S. lasiolepis (9)

Key to Pistillate Plants

1. Ovary (and generally fruit, at least when fruit young) glabrous (sometimes hairy on beak or when ovary young)

2. Flower bracts deciduous, ± tan, sparsely hairy, tips often ragged

3. Bud scale margins free, overlapping; tree

4. Leaf blade not glaucous abaxially; beak of ovary abruptly tapered to style ..... S. gooddingii (2)

4' Leaf blade glaucous abaxially; beak of ovary gradually tapered to style ..... S. laevigata

3' Bud scale margins fused; shrub to tree

5. Petiole with glands; plant not clonal; stigmas persistent

6. Tree 10–25 m; stipules not conspicuously glandular; fruit 3.5–5 mm; twigs ± yellow or gray to ± tan ..... S. alba

6' Shrub to tree, 1–11 m; stipules conspicuously glandular; fruit 6–11 mm; twigs yellow-brown ..... S. lasiandra (2)

5' Petiole glands 0; plant clonal by root-sprouting; stigmas deciduous

7. Petiole hairy; leaf margins ± rolled under; style ± green or ± tan ..... S. exigua (2)

7' Petiole ± glabrous; leaf margins flat; styles ± red or ± brown ..... S. melanopsis

2' Flower bracts generally persistent, ± tan to black, generally hairy, tips entire

8. Tree; twigs pendent; nectary > ovary stalk ..... S. babylonica

8' Shrub to tree; twigs erect; nectary < ovary stalk

9. Flower bract dark brown, wider distally, tip rounded, hairs dense, short, generally wavy; leaves white- or white-and-rusty-hairy

10. Stipule tip acute; leaf glands submarginal or distinctly on adaxial surface; young leaves thick, yellow-green (or ± red) ..... S. lasiolepis (2)

10' Stipule tip convex to rounded; leaf glands marginal; young leaves thin, ± red ..... S. tracyi

9' Flower bract not as above in all ways; young leaves white-hairy

11. Leaf blade not glaucous abaxially

12. Catkins blooming before or with leaves, on leafy shoots 1–9 mm; leaf blade adaxially glabrous (or becoming so) or soft-shaggy-hairy and highly glossy; ovary generally glabrous ..... S. boothii

12' Catkins blooming with leaves, on leafy shoots 2–12 mm; leaf blade adaxially tomentose or silky and dull to shiny; ovary glabrous or generally silky ..... S. eastwoodiae (3)

11' Leaf blade glaucous abaxially

13. Stipules 0 or vestigial on early leaves, 0 or prominent on later; flower bract hairs straight or wavy, rarely ± 0

14. Style 0.6–1.5 mm; fruit 5–10 mm; twigs generally thinly glaucous; leaf blade abaxially soft-shaggy or woolly, length 1.5–4.2 × width; flower bract with long, straight hairs, generally not wider distally, tip pointed or not ..... S. hookeriana (3)

14' Style 0.1–0.6 mm; fruit 2.5–5.5 mm; twigs not glaucous; leaf blade abaxially tomentose or silky (glabrous in age), length 2.2–9.6 × width; flower bract with short, generally wavy hairs, generally wider distally, tip rounded ..... S. lasiolepis (2)

13' Stipules prominent on all leaves; flower bract hairs generally curly, rarely straight or wavy

15. Twigs yellow-gray or yellow- or gray-brown, not peeling, glabrous or sparsely soft-shaggy-hairy ..... S. lutea

15' Twigs red- or yellow-brown, generally peeling, glabrous or long-soft-wavy-hairy

16. Ovary stalk 0.9–2.5 mm; leaf blade strap-shaped to very narrowly elliptic, length 2.9–6.4 × width, base convex to subcordate; stipule tip rounded to acuminate ..... S. ligulifolia

16' Ovary stalk 1.3–4.2 mm; leaf blade narrowly oblong or lanceolate to obovate, length 2.4–4.5 × width, base rounded to cordate; stipule tip convex to rounded ..... S. prolixa

1' Ovary (and generally fruit, at least when fruit young) hairy (sometimes hairy only on beak or when ovary young)

17. Dwarf shrub, forming mats by rhizomes or adventitious roots, alpine

18. Catkins ± 4–17-flowered; flower bract ± glabrous (hairy or not on margin); nectary 0–0.5 mm; style 0.2–0.4 mm; leaf abaxially strongly net-veined ..... S. nivalis

18' Catkins ± 50-flowered; flower bract hairy; nectary 0.5–1.2 mm; style 0.4–1.6 mm; leaf abaxially not strongly net-veined ..... S. petrophila

17' Low to tall shrub to tree, not forming mats, not alpine

19. Flower bracts deciduous, ± tan, sparsely to moderately hairy

20. Petioles not glandular at distal end; leaf margins with 0–4 teeth/cm, abaxial surface hairy ..... S. exigua (2)

20' Petioles glandular at distal end; leaf margins with 5–14 teeth/cm, abaxial surface sparsely hairy or generally glabrous

21. Bud scale margins free, overlapping; petioles with a pair of glands; leaf with white hairs ..... S. gooddingii (2)

21' Bud scale margins fused; petioles generally with a cluster of glands; leaf with generally a mixture of white and rusty hairs ..... S. lasiandra (2)

19' Flower bracts persistent, black, brown, or ± tan, generally moderately to densely hairy

22. Catkins blooming with leaves, on leafy shoots

23. Leaf blade abaxially not glaucous or surface obscured by hair

24. Leaf blade abaxially densely silky or silky-woolly, adaxially dark green, sparsely silky (glabrous in age); twigs generally brittle at base

25. Leaf blade 8–25 mm wide, length 3–7.3 × width, margins flat or ± rolled under; nectary 0.3–0.6 mm; twigs very brittle at base; Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada; 1000–3400 m ..... S. jepsonii (3)

25' Leaf blade 17–48 mm wide, length 2–4 × width, margins strongly rolled under, especially basally; nectary 0.5–0.9 mm; twigs flexible or ± brittle at base; Northwestern California, n High Sierra Nevada, Central Western California (except Inner South Coast Ranges), w Western Transverse Ranges; 0–400 m (1800–2500 m in Siskiyou, Humboldt cos.) ..... S. sitchensis (4)

24' Leaf blade on both surfaces sparsely to densely tomentose or silky, gray-green; twigs flexible at base

26. Leaves on catkin shoots and first leaves on vegetative twigs entire or finely short-slender-serrate ..... S. eastwoodiae (3)

26' Leaves on catkin shoots and first leaves on vegetative twigs entire or margins gland-dotted

27. Leaf blade abaxially sparsely to moderately woolly-tomentose or silky, glabrous in age

28. Leaf blade abaxially generally shaggy (sometimes appressed)-hairy, base rounded to cordate; flower bract brown or black; Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley, Modoc Plateau, White and Inyo Mountains ..... S. eastwoodiae (3)

28' Leaf blade abaxially silky, base wedge-shaped to convex; flower bract brown; Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada ..... S. orestera (2)

27' Leaf blade abaxially densely silky to woolly

29. Leaf blade 8–25 mm wide, length 3–7.3 × width, margins flat or ± rolled under; nectary 0.3–0.6 mm; twigs very brittle at base; Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada; 1000–3400 m ..... S. jepsonii (3)

29' Leaf blade 17–48 mm wide, length 2–4 × width, margins strongly rolled under, especially basally; nectary 0.5–0.9 mm; twigs flexible or ± brittle at base; Northwestern California, n High Sierra Nevada, Central Western California (except Inner South Coast Ranges), w Western Transverse Ranges; 0–400 m (1800–2500 m in Siskiyou, Humboldt cos.) ..... S. sitchensis (4)

23' Leaf blade abaxially glaucous

30. Ovary stalk 0–0.3 mm; shrub, generally < 0.5 m; subalpine ..... S. brachycarpa var. brachycarpa

30' Ovary stalk 0.4–5 mm; shrub to tree, > 0.5 m; alpine, subalpine, or montane

31. Young leaves rusty- or white-and-rusty-hairy

32. Catkin ± spheric, 8–21 mm; style 0.1–0.2 mm; fruit 3–6 mm; flower bract pale; leaves generally persistently silky on both surfaces; petiole 2–9 mm; stipules 0 or vestigial ..... S. geyeriana (4)

32' Catkin cylindric, 19–44 mm; style 0.3–1 mm; fruit 5–7 mm; flower bract dark; leaves silky but glabrous in age on both surfaces; petiole 5–16 mm; stipules vestigial on first leaves, leaf-like on later ..... S. lemmonii (2)

31' Young leaves white-hairy

33. Style 0.1–0.4 mm; ovary stalk 1–5 mm

34. Catkin cylindric, 16–60 mm; twigs shaggy, not glaucous; petiole puberulent; leaf blade dull adaxially; stipules leaf-like; ovary stalk 2–6 mm; 1000–1400 m ..... S. bebbiana (2)

34' Catkin ± spheric, 8–21 mm; twigs tomentose or velvety, generally glaucous; petiole velvety; leaf blade shiny adaxially; stipules 0 or vestigial; ovary stalk 1–2.8 mm; 1450–3600 m ..... S. geyeriana (4)

33' Style 0.4–1 mm; ovary stalk 0.4–2 mm

35. Style 0.4–0.6 mm; ovary short-silky; twigs very brittle at base; leaf blade abaxially densely silky; petiole silky or velvety ..... S. jepsonii (3)

35' Style 0.6–1 mm; ovary long-silky; twigs flexible at base; leaf blade abaxially sparsely to moderately silky; petiole tomentose ..... S. orestera (2)

22' Catkins blooming before leaves (sometimes ± so), sessile or on bracted shoots, rarely on leafy shoots to 5 mm

36. Flower bract ± tan or light rose

37. Flower bract sparsely hairy; ovary sparsely or moderately silky, long-beaked; style 0.1–0.4 mm

38. Catkin cylindric, 16–60 mm; twigs shaggy, not glaucous; petiole puberulent; leaf blade dull adaxially; stipules leaf-like; ovary stalk 2–6 mm; 1000–1400 m ..... S. bebbiana (2)

38' Catkin ± spheric, 8–21 mm; twigs tomentose or velvety, generally glaucous; petiole velvety; leaf blade shiny adaxially; stipules 0 or vestigial; ovary stalk 1–2.8 mm; 1450–3600 m ..... S. geyeriana (4)

37' Flower bract moderately to densely hairy; ovary densely hairy, short-beaked; style 0.4–0.8 mm

39. Ovary tomentose, stalk 0–0.4 mm, < nectary; nectary generally narrowly oblong; leaf margins ± rolled under, blade abaxially sparsely or moderately tomentose; stipule tip rounded; on serpentine ..... S. breweri

39' Ovary silky, stalk 0.4–1.4 mm, < to > nectary; nectary square to flask-shaped; leaf margins strongly rolled under, especially basally, blade abaxially densely silky or woolly; stipule tip generally acute; not on serpentine ..... S. sitchensis (4)

36' Flower bract brown, black, or 2-colored

40. Catkins and leaves (at least some) ± opposite ..... S. purpurea

40' Catkins and leaves alternate

41. Twigs generally strongly glaucous ..... S. drummondiana

41' Twigs not glaucous or weakly so

42. Young leaves generally white-hairy (hairs sometimes ± yellow, gray, or rusty)

43. Catkin stout; ovary stalk 1–2 mm ..... S. hookeriana (3)

43' Catkin slender; ovary stalk 0–1.4 mm

44. Ovary stalk 0–0.3 mm; catkin 17–53 mm; leaf blade abaxially densely tomentose; on serpentine, nw Klamath Ranges ..... S. delnortensis

44' Ovary stalk 0.4–1.4 mm; catkin 25–73 mm; leaf blade abaxially densely silky or woolly; not on serpentine, Northwestern California, n High Sierra Nevada, Central Western California (except Inner South Coast Ranges), w Western Transverse Ranges ..... S. sitchensis (4)

42' Young leaves white- or white-and-rusty-hairy

45. Stigma 0.2–0.4 mm; catkin < 45 mm

46. Catkin ± spheric, 8–21 mm; style 0.1–0.2 mm; fruit 3–6 mm; flower bract pale; leaves generally silky persistently on both surfaces; petiole 2–9 mm; stipules 0 or vestigial ..... S. geyeriana (4)

46' Catkin cylindric, 19–44 mm; style 0.3–1 mm; fruit 5–7 mm; flower bract dark; leaves silky but glabrous in age on both surfaces; petiole 5–16 mm; stipules vestigial on first leaves, leaf-like on later ..... S. lemmonii (2)

45' Stigma 0.4–1 mm; catkin 15–117 mm

47. Young leaves generally sparsely hairy; ovary stalk 0.3–0.8 mm; fruit <= 6 mm ..... S. planifolia

47' Young leaves generally densely hairy; ovary stalk 0.8–2.3 mm; fruit generally > 6 mm

48. Style 0.6–1.5 mm; stigma 0.3–0.6 mm, generally broad-cylindric to plump ..... S. hookeriana (3)

48' Style 0.2–0.6 mm; stigma 0.4–1 mm, slender-cylindric ..... S. scouleriana

Key to Staminate Plants

1. Stamens > 2 per flower

2. Bud scale margins fused; anthers 0.6–1 mm ..... S. lasiandra

2' Bud scale margins free, overlapping; anthers 0.4–0.6 mm

3. Leaf blade not glaucous abaxially; twigs ± yellow or yellow-green or ± tan; margins of leaves on catkin shoots finely serrate; young leaves white-hairy ..... S. gooddingii

3' Leaf blade glaucous abaxially; twigs ± tan; margins of leaves on catkin shoots entire; young leaves glabrous or white- or white-and-rusty-hairy ..... S. laevigata

1' Stamens 1–2 per flower

4. Stamen 1 per flower

5. Catkins and leaves (at least some) ± opposite ..... S. purpurea

5' Catkins and leaves alternate

6. Leaf blade 8–25 mm wide, length 3–7.3 × width; flower bract sparsely hairy; filaments generally hairy basally; twigs very brittle at base; Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada; 1000–3400 m ..... S. jepsonii (2)

6' Leaf blade 17–48 mm wide, length 2–4 × width; flower bract moderately hairy; filaments glabrous; twigs flexible or ± brittle at base; Northwestern California, n High Sierra Nevada, Central Western California (except Inner South Coast Ranges), w Western Transverse Ranges; 0–400 m (1800–2500 m in Siskiyou, Humboldt cos.) ..... S. sitchensis

4' Stamens 2 per flower

7. Shrub < 0.2 m, forming mats by rhizomes or adventitious roots; alpine

8. Catkin and leafy shoot terminal; catkin 7–19 mm; flower bract ± glabrous (hairy or not on margin); young leaves glabrous; nectaries adaxial, abaxial ..... S. nivalis

8' Catkin and leafy shoot lateral; catkin 18–32 mm; flower bract hairy; young leaves long-soft-wavy-hairy; nectaries generally only adaxial ..... S. petrophila

7' Shrub to tree, > 0.2 m, not forming mats; not alpine

9. Nectaries adaxial and abaxial; catkins blooming with or after leaves, on leafy shoots

10. Tree; twigs flexible or ± brittle at base

11. Stems and twigs erect to spreading; twigs ± yellow or gray to ± tan, densely silky; petiole silky ..... S. alba

11' Stems and twigs pendent; twigs ± tan, short-silky to velvety, glabrous in age (except at nodes); petiole tomentose ..... S. babylonica

10' Shrub; twigs flexible at base

12. Shrub generally < 0.5 m, not clonal by root-sprouting, subalpine; catkin 4–5 mm on leafy shoot ± 1 mm; anther 0.3–0.5 mm ..... S. brachycarpa var. brachycarpa

12' Shrub 0.8–7 m, clonal by root-sprouting, riparian; catkin 13–54 mm on leafy shoot 5–70 mm; anther 0.6–1.1 mm

13. Leaf blade linear to narrow-elliptic or -oblanceolate, length 2.8–8.5 × width; twigs gray-brown; young leaves long-soft-wavy-hairy, tomentose, or velvety; petiole glabrous ..... S. melanopsis

13' Leaf blade linear, length 10–23 × width; twigs ± tan; young leaves short- and long-silky; petiole hairy ..... S. exigua

9' Nectaries adaxial; catkins blooming before or with leaves, sessile or on leafy shoots; native

14. Catkins blooming before leaves (sometimes ± so), sessile or on bracted shoots or on leafy shoots to 4 mm

15. Flower bract ± tan or light rose; on serpentine ..... S. breweri

15' Flower bract brown to black; not on serpentine (except Salix delnortensis)

16. Anthers >= 0.6 mm

17. Twigs tomentose or velvety, brittle at base; serpentine ..... S. delnortensis

17' Twigs generally hairy, not velvety, brittle or flexible at base; non-serpentine

18. Anthers yellow; catkins sessile or on leafy shoots to 8 mm, length 1.6–6.4 × width; twigs brittle at base ..... S. hookeriana (2)

18' Anthers purple, in age yellow; catkins sessile or on leafy shoots to 4 mm, length 1.3–3.2 × width; twigs flexible at base

19. Low shrubs generally restricted to subalpine meadows, High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada; twigs generally glabrous to sparsely hairy; adaxial nectaries narrowly oblong to oblong ..... S. planifolia (2)

19' Tall shrubs to trees in forest openings, Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, n Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province; twigs sparsely hairy to densely velvety; adaxial nectaries oblong to square ..... S. scouleriana

16' Anthers generally <= 0.6 mm

20. Plants of High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada (Salix lasiolepis also in High Sierra Nevada, White and Inyo Mountains, but in staminate plants morphologically indistinguishable from Salix drummondiana and Salix planifolia)

21. Twigs brittle at base, generally strongly glaucous; c&s High Sierra Nevada, White and Inyo Mountains ..... S. drummondiana

21' Twigs flexible at base, generally not glaucous; High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada ..... S. planifolia (2)

20' Plants not of High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada

22. Twigs glabrous, long-soft hairy, tomentose, or woolly; filaments glabrous or hairy; anthers yellow; North Coast (< 100 m), n Outer North Coast Ranges (500–1000 m), Cascade Range Foothills, n Central Coast (Sonoma Co.) ..... S. hookeriana (2)

22' Twigs glabrous, densely short-soft-spreading-hairy, or tomentose; filaments glabrous; anthers purple, in age yellow; California

23. Stipule tip acute; leaf glands submarginal or distinctly on adaxial surface; young leaves thick, yellow-green (or ± red) ..... S. lasiolepis

23' Stipule tip convex to rounded; leaf glands marginal; young leaves thin, ± red ..... S. tracyi (2)

14' Catkins blooming with leaves, on (sometimes very short) leafy shoots

24. Young leaves rusty- or white-and-rusty-hairy

25. Flower bracts widest above middle; leaf abaxial hairs spreading; young leaves glabrous, tomentose, or puberulent ..... S. tracyi (2)

25' Flower bracts widest at middle; leaf abaxial hairs appressed; young leaves silky

26. Catkin spheric, 11–18 mm; flower bract glabrous or hairy, ± tan to dark brown; anthers 0.4–0.5 mm ..... S. geyeriana (3)

26' Catkin stout-cylindric, 19–44 mm; flower bract hairy, brown to 2-colored; anthers 0.5–0.9 mm ..... S. lemmonii

24' Young leaves white-hairy or glabrous

27. Filaments hairy

28. Leaf blade abaxially not glaucous; leaves on catkin shoots generally finely short-slender-serrate (or entire or gland-dotted) ..... S. eastwoodiae (2)

28' Leaf blade abaxially glaucous or surface obscured by hair; leaves on catkin shoots entire or gland-dotted

29. Stipules 0 or vestigial

30. Catkin spheric, 11–18 mm; anthers 0.4–0.5 mm; leaf blade shiny adaxially; petiole velvety ..... S. geyeriana (3)

30' Catkin stout-cylindric, 16–34 mm; anthers 0.6–1 mm; leaf blade dull adaxially; petiole tomentose ..... S. orestera (2)

29' Stipules leaf-like

31. Leaf blade abaxially densely silky; petiole silky or velvety; twigs very brittle at base ..... S. jepsonii (2)

31' Leaf blade abaxially sparsely to moderately tomentose or silky; petiole puberulent or tomentose; twigs flexible at base

32. Flower bract ± tan; twigs moderately to densely long-soft-wavy-hairy; petiole puberulent; 1000–1400 m ..... S. bebbiana (2)

32' Flower bract brown; twigs sparsely soft-shaggy-hairy or silky, glabrous in age; petiole tomentose; 2100–4000 m ..... S. orestera (2)

27' Filaments glabrous

33. Later stipules 0 or vestigial, scars 0 or minute ..... S. geyeriana (3)

33' Later stipules leaf-like, scars not 0, not minute

34. Leaf blade not glaucous abaxially

35. Young leaves shaggy-hairy; mature leaf blade abaxially glabrous or soft-shaggy-hairy, adaxially shiny to highly glossy ..... S. boothii

35' Young leaves densely tomentose, silky, or woolly; mature leaf blade abaxially tomentose, long-soft-wavy-hairy, woolly-tomentose, silky, or glabrous in age, adaxially dull ..... S. eastwoodiae (2)

34' Leaf blade glaucous abaxially

36. Twigs yellow-gray or yellow- or gray-brown, not peeling; anthers 0.4–0.8 mm ..... S. lutea

36' Twigs yellow-green or generally ± tan, peeling; anthers 0.5–0.8 mm

37. Leaf blade margin entire to crenate; flower bract 1.2–3.2 mm, hairs wavy; catkin leafy shoots 0.5–11 mm ..... S. bebbiana (2)

37' Leaf blade margin generally serrate; flower bract 0.8–1.6 mm, hairs curly; catkin leafy shoots 0–3 mm

38. Leaf blade strap-shaped to narrowly elliptic, base convex to subcordate; stipule tip rounded to acuminate ..... S. ligulifolia

38' Leaf blade narrowly oblong or lanceolate to obovate, base rounded to cordate; stipule tip convex to rounded ..... S. prolixa

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Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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