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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.


Stem: spreading to generally erect, 0.3–2(4.5) m; uppermost bud generally conic, generally not thorn-like. (Greek: sitting upon, from jointed stems and/or ancient name for Equisetum, also with jointed stems)

Key to Ephedra

1. Leaves, cone bracts generally 3 per node; seed cones sessile

2. Uppermost bud thorn-like; leaf sheath persistent, fibrous ..... E. trifurca

2' Uppermost bud narrowed but not thorn-like; leaf sheath deciduous, not fibrous

3. Seed not beaked; twig yellow-green in youth; leaf base in age recurved, swollen ..... E. californica

3' Seed beaked; twig gray-green in youth; leaf base in age not recurved, not swollen ..... E. funerea

1' Leaves, cone bracts generally 2 per node; seed cones sessile or stalked

4. Distal bracts of seed cone fused >= 2/3, fleshy at maturity ..... E. foeminea

4' Distal bracts of seed cone free or fused < 1/3, scarious at maturity

5. Seed generally 1; seed cone stalk <= 2 mm ..... E. aspera

5' Seeds generally 2; seed cone stalk <= 11(50) mm

6. Twig pale green, glaucous in youth; leaf base gray, deciduous; bracts of seed cone broadly ovate ..... E. nevadensis

6' Twig bright- to yellow-green in youth; leaf base brown, persistent; bracts of seed cone elliptic ..... E. viridis


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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