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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual to subshrub.
Leaf: generally opposite proximally (or clustered in axils), generally ± fine-toothed; veins generally obscure.
Inflorescence: generally raceme, bracted.
Flower: radial or rarely ± bilateral; sepals 4, erect; petals 4, notched; stamens 8, anthers attached at middle, pollen grains generally shed in 4s, cream-yellow; ovary chambers 4, stigma generally club-like, occasionally 4-lobed.
Fruit: straight, cylindric to club-like.
Seed: generally in 1 row per chamber, generally with white, deciduous hair-tuft.
165 species: worldwide except tropics. (Greek: upon pod, from inferior ovary) [Raven 1976 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 63:326–340; Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:81–95] Incl Boisduvalia, Zauschneria. Most taxa polyploid; many with anthers ± = stigma self-pollinated; many hybrids. Taxa with alternate leaves moved to Chamerion.
1. Annual from taproot; leaves opposite only near base, alternate or clustered distally, ± narrowly lanceolate; proximal stem generally peeling
2. Seed hair-tuft 0
3. Fr wall tough, generally splitting only on distal 1/3; seeds in 2 rows per chamber; basal branches generally prostrate or decumbent (sect. Epilobiopsis)
4. Fr 8–12 mm, sharply 4-angled ..... E. cleistogamum
4' Fr 3.5–8 mm, cylindric ..... E. campestre
3' Fr wall flexible, splitting to base; seeds in 1 row per chamber or compressed to 1 row per capsule; basal branches ascending or 0 (sect. Boisduvalia)
5. Fr not beaked, central axis persistent ..... E. densiflorum
5' Fr beaked, central axis disintegrating
6. Hypanthium 1.5–3 mm, sepals 2–6 mm, petals 3–10 mm; fruit 10–21 mm; seeds in 1 staggered row, 1.8–2.3 mm ..... E. pallidum
6' Hypanthium 0.4–1 mm, sepals 0.7–2 mm, petals 1–3.2 mm; fruit 8–14 mm; seeds in 4 rows, 0.9–1.6 mm ..... E. torreyi
2' Seed hair-tuft present
7. Plant 2–20 dm, ± glandular; hypanthium 1.5–8(16) mm, sepals 1.2–8 mm, petals 2–15(20) mm; seed 1.5–2.7 mm ..... E. brachycarpum
7' Plant 0.5–4.5 dm, nonglandular; hypanthium 0.4–1.5 mm, sepals 1.3–2.5 mm, petals 1.8–5 mm; seed 0.6–1.2 mm
8. Lvs generally folded along midrib, distal clustered; inflorescence dense; petals 1.8–3 mm; seeds 0.6–0.9 mm, papillate ..... E. foliosum
8' Lvs flat, not clustered; inflorescence open; petals 2–5 mm; seeds 0.9–1.2 mm, netted ..... E. minutum
1' Perennial to subshrub from caudex, taproot 0; leaves generally opposite up to inflorescence, generally (narrowly) lanceolate to ovate; proximal stem not peeling (except Epilobium rigidum)
9. Hypanthium 17–34 mm; corolla red-orange, ± bilateral (sect. Zauschneria)
10. Matted per 1–2 dm; proximal leaves white-canescent, nonglandular, distal leaves glandular; NCo, NCoRO ..... E. septentrionale
10' Clumped perennial herbs to subshrub 1–12 dm; all leaves alike, generally not white-canescent, glandular or not; widespread CA-FP ..... E. canum
11. Lvs linear to lanceolate, generally < 6 mm wide, often clustered; perennial herb to subshrub 2–12 dm ..... subsp. canum
11' Lvs lanceolate to widely ovate, generally > 6 mm wide, not clustered; per 1–5 dm
12. Lvs widely ovate, prominently toothed, lateral veins conspicuous ..... subsp. garrettii
12' Lvs lanceolate to ovate, ± entire to generally toothed, lateral veins obscure ..... subsp. latifolium
9' Hypanthium generally 0.4–8(16) mm; corolla white or cream-yellow to purple (sect. Epilobium)
13. Stigma 4-lobed; sepals (3)6–15 mm; petals (6)10–24 mm, pink to rose-purple or cream
14. Petals cream-yellow; hair-tufts ± red, persistent; fruit 35–75 mm ..... E. luteum
14' Petals pink to rose-purple; hair-tufts white, deciduous; fruit 8–45 mm
15. St 4–10 dm; leaf 30–90 mm, veins ± red, conspicuous; seed 0.9–1.3 mm, ridged ..... E. oreganum
15' St < 4 dm; leaf 6–45 mm, veins obscure; seed 1.4–3.4 mm, papillate
16. Petals 6–10 mm; seeds 1–2 per chamber (8 per fruit); fruit 8–16 mm ..... E. nivium
16' Petals 11–24 mm; seeds > 8 per chamber; fruit 20–45 mm
17. Plant 1–4 dm, nonglandular; leaf 20–45 mm, petiole 2–6 mm; hypanthium 1–1.8 mm; seed 2.5–3.4 mm ..... E. rigidum
17' Plant < 2.5 dm, sometimes glandular (especially ovaries); leaf 6–26 mm, petiole 0–3 mm; hypanthium 2–6 mm; seed 1.4–2.1 mm
18. Pedicel in fruit 2–3 mm; leaf 6–20 mm, tip round to obtuse, petiole 0–3 mm; plant ± glaucous ..... E. obcordatum
18' Pedicel in fruit 6–25 mm; leaf 13–26 mm, tip ± acute; petiole 0; plant not glaucous ..... E. siskiyouense
13' Stigma entire, club-like (occasionally cylindric); sepals 1–7.5 mm; petals 1.6–14 mm, white to rose-purple
19. St ± erect, with offset rosettes or fleshy underground shoots
20. Lf veins ± obscure; stem with fleshy bulb-like shoot; seed papillate
21. Pedicel in fruit 10–40 mm; inflorescence ± nodding; leaf 5–45 mm ..... E. hallianum
21' Pedicel in fruit 0–5 mm; inflorescence erect; leaf 10–65 mm ..... E. saximontanum
20' Lf veins conspicuous; stem with rosette or fleshy shoot; seed ridged ..... E. ciliatum
22. Petals 2–6(9) mm, white to pink; leaf lanceolate, reduced in open inflorescence — basal rosette present ..... subsp. ciliatum
22' Petals 4–14 mm, pink to rose-purple; leaf lanceolate to ovate, little reduced on crowded inflorescence
23. St with fleshy shoot; inflorescence long ..... subsp. glandulosum
23' St with leafy rosette or shoot; inflorescence flat-topped ..... subsp. watsonii
19' St ± ascending, clumped or cespitose; leafy or thread-like stolons sometimes tipped by fleshy bulblets
24. Plant ± glabrous (except scattered inflorescence hairs)
25. Plant 0.8–3(4) dm, matted; stolons thread-like; pedicels 20–65 mm; inflorescence open (bracts << internodes); leaf tip obtuse ..... E. oregonense
25' Plant < 8.5 dm, clumped; stolons short, scaly; pedicels 5–25 mm; inflorescence crowded (bracts ± = internodes); leaf tip subacute ..... E. glaberrimum
26. St < 3.5 dm; leaf 10–35 mm, lanceolate to narrowly ovate; fruit 20–55 mm ..... subsp. fastigiatum
26' St 2–8.5 dm; leaf 20–70 mm, ± narrowly lanceolate; fruit 45–75 mm ..... subsp. glaberrimum
24' Plant variously hairy, often in decurrent lines on stem
27. St densely glandular-hairy; petals 2–3 mm, white ..... E. howellii
27' St hairy, nonglandular; petals 2–9 mm, white or pink to rose-purple
28. Stolons thread-like, tipped by fleshy bulblets; leaf ± narrowly lanceolate; seed 1.4–2.2 mm, hair-tuft persistent
29. Lf densely minutely strigose; inflorescence minutely strigose and glandular ..... E. leptophyllum
29' Lf minutely strigose only on margins and midrib; inflorescence minutely strigose, nonglandular ..... E. palustre
28' Stolons short, leafy; leaf generally lanceolate or wider; seeds 0.7–2.1 mm, hair-tuft generally deciduous
30. Plant cespitose, < 2.2 dm; leaf 8–28 mm; fruit 17–40 mm
31. Infl ± nodding; pedicel in fruit 10–55 mm; seed 0.7–1.4 mm, netted ..... E. anagallidifolium
31' Infl erect; pedicel in fruit 2–18 mm; seed 1.5–2.1 mm, papillate ..... E. clavatum
30' Plant loosely clumped, 1–5 dm; leaf 15–55 mm; fruit 40–100 mm
32. Pedicel in fruit 5–15 mm; fruit 40–65 mm; seed 0.9–1.2 mm, papillate; petals generally pink to rose-purple ..... E. hornemannii subsp. hornemannii
32' Pedicel in fruit 20–45 mm; fruit 50–100 mm; seed 1.1–1.6 mm, netted; petals generally white ..... E. lactiflorum
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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