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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Harlan Lewis

Annual < 1.5 m. Stem: prostrate to erect, glabrous, often glaucous, or puberulent (hairs long, spreading). Leaf: pinnately veined; petiole < 4 cm or 0; blade 1–10 cm, linear to elliptic or ovate, entire or shallow-toothed, glabrous or sparsely puberulent. Inflorescence: spike, raceme; bracts leaf-like; axis in bud straight or recurved at tip, in flower ± straight; buds erect or not. Flower: hypanthium obconic to cup-shaped, or long, slender, generally with ring of hairs within; sepals 4, generally fused to tip in bud, reflexed at least at base, staying fused at least at tip, in 4s or 2s, or all coming free; corolla bowl-shaped to rotate, petals 5–60 mm, often lobed or clawed, lavender or pink to dark red, pale yellow, or white, often spotted, flecked, or streaked with red, purple, or white; stamens 8, in 2 like or unlike series, or 4, filaments cylindric to wider distally, subtended by ciliate scales or generally not, anthers attached at base, pollen white or yellow to blue-gray, lavender, or ± red; ovary 4-chambered, glabrous or not, cylindric, fusiform, or wider distally, generally shallowly to deeply 4- or 8-grooved, stigma lobes 4, generally prominent. Fruit: generally capsule, elongate (short, indehiscent, nut-like). Seed: generally many, rarely 1–2, 0.5–2 mm, angled, crested or not, brown, gray, or mottled.
± 41 species: western North America, 1 South America. (Captain William Clark, 1770–1838, of Lewis & Clark Expedition) [Lewis & Lewis 1955 Univ Calif Publ Bot 20:241–392] Self-fertile; self-pollinated or outcrossed; on herbarium specimens, curvature of inflorescence axis in bud generally reliable, pollen color generally not.

Key to Clarkia

1. Fruit 2–3 mm, nut-like, indehiscent, 1–2-seeded ..... C. heterandra

1' Fruit > 5 mm, not nut-like, dehiscent, many-seeded

2. Stamens 4; petals 3-lobed

3. Petal length ± = width, middle lobe narrower ..... C. breweri

3' Petal length ± 2 × width, lobes ± equally wide ..... C. concinna

4. Stigma exserted beyond anthers; petals 15–30 mm ..... subsp. concinna

4' Stigma not exserted beyond anthers; petals 10–20 mm

5. Petal lobes prominent, separated by deep sinuses ..... subsp. automixa

5' Petal lobes short, not separated by deep sinuses ..... subsp. raichei

2' Stamens 8; petals not 3-lobed

6. Axis of inflorescence in bud straight; buds erect or reflexed

7. Buds reflexed; corolla rotate or bowl-shaped; inner anthers < outer, paler

8. Petal lobes 2, with slender tooth between ..... C. xantiana

9. Petals 6–12 mm; stigma not exserted beyond anthers ..... subsp. parviflora

9' Petals 12–20 mm; stigma exserted beyond anthers ..... subsp. xantiana

8' Petals entire

10. Corolla bowl-shaped; petals not clawed

11. Seeds brown; s Outer South Coast Ranges (San Luis Obispo Co. and s), South Coast, Western Transverse Ranges, nw Peninsular Ranges ..... C. bottae

11' Seeds gray; n Outer South Coast Ranges (Monterey Co.) ..... C. jolonensis

10' Corolla rotate; petals clawed

12. Petal claw < blade ..... C. delicata

12' Petal claw >= blade

13. Calyx and ovary puberulent and with longer, straight, spreading hairs < 3 mm ..... C. unguiculata

13' Calyx and ovary sparsely to densely puberulent, longer straight spreading hairs 0

14. Leaves bright green, not glaucous ..... C. exilis

14' Leaves gray-green or ± red, glaucous

15. Sepals generally dark red-purple — stigma exserted beyond anthers ..... C. springvillensis

15' Sepals green, red-tinged or not ..... C. tembloriensis

16. Petals ± 10 mm wide; stigma not exserted beyond anthers ..... subsp. calientensis

16' Petals generally < 10 mm wide; stigma exserted beyond anthers or not ..... subsp. tembloriensis

7' Buds erect; corolla bowl-shaped; anthers alike

17. Sepals staying fused in 4s

18. Ovary and immature fruit 8-grooved

19. Petals 5–15 mm; immature fruit cylindric ..... C. affinis

19' Petals 30–60 mm; immature fruit fusiform ..... C. amoena subsp. whitneyi

18' Ovary and immature fruit 4-grooved

20. Petals with red spot or marks near middle ..... C. amoena

21. Stem decumbent; inflorescence dense; internode generally < subtending flower ..... subsp. amoena

21' Stem erect; inflorescence open; internode generally > subtending flower ..... subsp. huntiana

20' Petals with ± red spot or zone at base

22. Petals 5–13 mm; stigma not exserted beyond anthers ..... C. franciscana

22' Petals 10–30 mm; stigma exserted beyond anthers ..... C. rubicunda

17' Sepals all coming free or staying fused in 2s

23. Stigma not exserted beyond anthers; petals 5–15 mm

24. Stem generally erect; leaves generally linear to lanceolate, acute ..... C. purpurea subsp. quadrivulnera

24' Stem prostrate to decumbent; leaves elliptic to obovate, tip generally obtuse

25. Petals 5–11 mm, spot 0 ..... C. davyi

25' Petals 10–15 mm, ± red spot above base ..... C. prostrata

23' Stigma exserted beyond anthers; petals generally 15–30 mm

26. Sepals free at tip in bud ..... C. williamsonii

26' Sepals fused to tip in bud

27. Inflorescence dense; ovary generally > distal internode

28. Hypanthium conspicuously veined; petals with a large wedge-shaped purple-red spot distally ..... C. imbricata

28' Hypanthium not conspicuously veined; petal spot near middle

29. Leaves broadly lanceolate to elliptic or ovate, glabrous to sparsely puberulent ..... C. purpurea subsp. purpurea

29' Leaves lanceolate, puberulent ..... C. speciosa subsp. nitens

27' Inflorescence open; ovary generally < distal internode

30. Petals lacking red or red-purple spot ..... C. speciosa subsp. immaculata

30' Petals with red or red-purple spot

31. Petal spot distal (darker proximally or not) ..... C. purpurea subsp. viminea

31' Petal spot near middle

32. Flowers many on well-developed branches; s Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area ..... C. speciosa subsp. polyantha

32' Flowers few on well-developed branches; South Coast Ranges ..... C. speciosa subsp. speciosa

6' Axis of inflorescence in bud recurved at tip; buds pendent

33. Petal claw broad, 2-lobed

34. Stigma not exserted beyond anthers; petals 6–12 mm

35. Petals generally spotted; pollen blue-gray ..... C. rhomboidea

35' Petals unspotted; pollen yellow ..... C. stellata

34' Stigma exserted beyond anthers; petals generally > 12 mm

36. Axis of inflorescence in bud recurved within 3 nodes of open flower; petal length 1.4–1.6 × width ..... C. mildrediae

37. Anthers yellow to orange-red or red; fresh pollen yellow to tan ..... subsp. lutescens

37' Anthers magenta; fresh pollen blue-gray ..... subsp. mildrediae

36' Axis of inflorescence straight 4 or more nodes distal to open flower; petal length 1.6–3 × width

38. Flower buds fusiform, tip acute ..... C. borealis

39. Seed 1.8–2.5 mm; se Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills ..... subsp. arida

39' Seed 1.5–1.8 mm; Klamath Ranges ..... subsp. borealis

38' Flower buds obovate, tip obtuse

40. Petal length 1.6–2 × width ..... C. mosquinii

40' Petal length 1.9–3 × width

41. Leaves lance-linear ..... C. australis

41' Leaves elliptic to ovate ..... C. virgata

33' Petal claw 0 or < 2 mm, not lobed

42. Petals 2-lobed ..... C. biloba

43. Petals bright pink to magenta, length generally > 1.5 × width ..... subsp. australis

43' Petals lavender to purple-pink, length generally < 1.5 × width

44. Petal lobes generally 1/5–1/2 petal length ..... subsp. biloba

44' Petal lobes generally < 1/5 petal length ..... subsp. brandegeeae

42' Petals entire, occasionally notched at tip

45. Anthers alike in size and color

46. Ovary and immature fruit conspicuously 8-grooved; fruit not wider distally

47. Stigma exserted beyond anthers; pedicel 5–15 mm ..... C. arcuata

47' Stigma not exserted beyond anthers; pedicel 0–3 mm ..... C. lassenensis

46' Ovary and immature fruit 4- or rarely shallowly 8-grooved; fruit generally wider distally ..... C. gracilis

48. Petals 6–23 mm, spot 0, base darker or not; stigma not exserted beyond anthers ..... subsp. gracilis

48' Petals 20–40 mm with a red spot near middle or red at base; stigma exserted beyond anthers

49. Petals with a red spot near middle ..... subsp. sonomensis

49' Petals red at base

50. Petals generally 30–40 mm; s Cascade Range Foothills ..... subsp. albicaulis

50' Petals generally 20–30 mm; Inner North Coast Ranges ..... subsp. tracyi

45' Anthers in 2 unlike series, inner smaller, paler

51. Stigma not exserted beyond anthers; petals 5–12 mm

52. Petals white, not flecked, fading pink ..... C. epilobioides

52' Petals pale to dark pink, generally flecked, fading darker

53. Petals pink, not lighter near base, generally darker flecked ..... C. modesta

53' Petals pale pink, shading lighter near base, purple flecked ..... C. similis

51' Stigma exserted beyond anthers; petals 10–35 mm

54. Corolla rotate; petals oblanceolate ..... C. lingulata

54' Corolla bowl-shaped; petals fan-shaped

55. Ovary and immature fruit 8-grooved ..... C. dudleyana

55' Ovary and immature fruit 4-grooved

56. Width of outer filaments ± 2 × inner; ring of hairs in hypanthium below rim ..... C. cylindrica

57. Fruit wider distally ..... subsp. clavicarpa

57' Fruit cylindric ..... subsp. cylindrica

56' Width of all filaments ± equal; ring of hairs in hypanthium at rim

58. Fruit beak 0–3 mm ..... C. lewisii

58' Fruit beak 7–15 mm ..... C. rostrata


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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