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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual, from taproot; rosette generally ± 0. Leaf: cauline, alternate, simple, generally linear to narrowly elliptic. Inflorescence: bracted; spike, nodding in bud, flower only at distal nodes. Flower: radial, generally opening at dawn; sepals 4, reflexed singly or in pairs; petals 4, yellow, generally fading red, often with red basal spots; stamens 8, longer ones opposite sepals, anthers attached at middle, pollen grains 3-angled except in polyploid taxa, at 20×; ovary chambers 4, stigma hemispheric, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated, or ± = anthers and self-pollinated. Fruit: ± cylindric, straight to wavy, distorted by seeds at maturity, dehiscent throughout most of its length, generally sessile. Seed: in 1 row per chamber, narrowly obovoid, smooth (minutely pitted), glossy.
12 species: western North America (especially California Floristic Province), 1 South America. (L.A. von Chamisso, French-born German botanist, 1781–1838) [Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1–240] Polyploidy and self-pollination have predominated in evolution of genus. Not monophyletic as treated in TJM (1993); segregates moved to Camissoniopsis, Chylismia, Chylismiella, Eremothera, Eulobus, Neoholmgrenia, Taraxia, Tetrapteron (Wagner et al. 2007).
Unabridged references: [Raven 1969 Contr US Natl Herb 37:161–396]
1. Sepals all separating when flower opens
2. Petals 8–18 mm; sepals 5–11 mm; stigma exceeding anthers ..... C. kernensis
3. Plant ± open, sparsely spreading-hairy, sparsely glandular-hairy; leaves not clustered at base; pedicel 0–5 mm ..... subsp. gilmanii
3' Plant compact, densely spreading-hairy, sparsely glandular-hairy; leaves clustered at base; pedicel 3–15 mm ..... subsp. kernensis
2' Petals 1.8–4 mm; sepals <= 3.8 mm; stigma surrounded by anthers
4. Leaf ± entire; plant ± glabrous or minutely strigose, generally sparsely glandular-hairy, rarely sparsely spreading-nonglandular-hairy ..... C. parvula
4' Leaf serrate or minutely so; plant hairs generally spreading, some glandular
5. Hypanthium 1.3–3 mm; sepals 2.2–3.8 mm; fruit (18)26–50 mm ..... C. pubens
5' Hypanthium 0.8–1.6 mm; sepals 1.2–2 mm; fruit 18–32 mm ..... C. pusilla
1' Sepals generally remaining fused in pairs when flower opens
6. Stigma exceeding anthers; sepals 3–8(12) mm; petals (3.5)5–15 mm
7. Leaf lanceolate to narrowly ovate or elliptic, ± entire; sepals < 4.2 mm ..... C. sierrae subsp. sierrae (2)
7' Leaf linear to narrow-elliptic or -oblanceolate, minutely to coarsely serrate; sepals 3–8(12) mm ..... C. campestris
8. Stem generally erect; leaf minutely serrate ..... subsp. campestris
8' Stem generally decumbent; leaf coarsely serrate ..... subsp. obispoensis
6' Stigma generally surrounded by anthers; sepals 1.2–4(5.5) mm; petals 2–7 mm
9. Leaf entire (teeth 1–2, small) ..... C. integrifolia
9' Leaf generally minutely serrate (Camissonia sierrae occasionally with only several small teeth)
10. Leaf lanceolate to narrowly ovate or elliptic, base obtuse or rounded ..... C. sierrae
11. Sepals 1.2–3 mm; petal base without red dots; style 2.8–5 mm ..... subsp. alticola
11' Sepals 3–4.2 mm; petal base with 2 red dots; style 4.5–7 mm ..... subsp. sierrae (2)
10' Leaf linear to narrowly elliptic, base acute or long-tapered
12. Plant minutely strigose, or some hairs spreading and glandular, or occasionally coarsely spreading and nonglandular toward base; < 10% of pollen grains 4-angled ..... C. strigulosa
12' Plant hairs spreading, generally fine (coarse in Camissonia contorta), often glandular in inflorescence; < 10% or > 30% of pollen grains 4-angled
13. Sepals (3)3.8–5.5 mm; petals (4)4.5–7 mm ..... C. lacustris
13' Sepals 1.6–4 mm; petals 2–4(5) mm
14. Leaf not (or slightly) blue-green; hypanthium ± 1.2 mm; plant nonglandular hairs of 2 types (linear, white; rod-shaped, transparent); < 10% of pollen grains 4-angled; Inner South Coast Ranges ..... C. benitensis
14' Leaf generally blue-green; hypanthium 1.2–2.3 mm; plant nonglandular hairs of 1 type (rod-shaped, transparent); generally > 30% of pollen grains 4-angled; widespread ..... C. contorta
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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