Jepson eFlora
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Key to Solanum

View taxon page for Solanum

1. Hairs (some or all) stellate; anthers tapered, opening by terminal pores; plant often prickly

2. Stellate hairs scale-like, rays fused at base ..... S. elaeagnifolium

2' Stellate hairs not scale-like, rays free

3. Anthers unequal; calyx tightly enclosing fruit ..... S. rostratum

3' Anthers generally ± equal; calyx not tightly enclosing fruit

4. Leaf abaxially densely white-tomentose or velvety

5. Calyx not prickly; inflorescence branches 2–4; fruits several to many per inflorescence, 7–15 mm diam ..... S. lanceolatum

5' Calyx prickly; inflorescence branches 0; fruits 1 per inflorescence, 35–50 mm diam ..... S. marginatum

4' Leaf abaxially sparsely tomentose, neither clearly white nor velvety

6. Leaf deeply pinnately lobed, lobes entire to lobed ± to midrib; annual; fruit red ..... S. sisymbriifolium

6' Leaf ± entire to wavy-lobed, teeth or lobes ± entire; perennial herb from rhizome; fruit yellow ..... S. carolinense 6a. Corolla generally pale violet (white); stellate hairs fine, generally sessile; inflorescence generally raceme-like; fruit 8–20 mm ..... S. carolinense 6a' Corolla generally purple (white); stellate hairs coarse, some stalked; inflorescence generally branched; fruit > 20 mm ..... [S. dimidiatum]

1' Hairs branched or not but not stellate; anthers oblong, opening by terminal pores that become short slits; plant not prickly

7. Leaf deeply lobed; annual ..... S. triflorum

7' Leaf entire to shallowly lobed, if deeply 1–2-lobed below middle, shrub

8. Corolla lobes < tube + throat, generally spreading

9. Shrub 2–4 m; leaf ± entire to deeply 1–2-lobed below middle; fruit orange-red ..... S. aviculare

9' Perennial herb to subshrub generally < 1 m; leaf entire to 1–2-lobed at base; fruit green to ± purple

10. Upper stem hairs branched ..... S. umbelliferum

10' Upper stem hairs 0 or generally simple

11. Stem ± glabrous, ridged; leaf sessile or gradually tapered to acute base ..... S. parishii

11' Stem generally soft- or glandular-hairy, not or weak-ridged; leaf petioled, blade base rounded or obtuse to ± cordate

12. Leaf generally 6–10 cm, oblong to ovate; fruit generally 15–25 mm; Channel Islands ..... S. wallacei

12' Leaf 2–7 cm, lanceolate to ovate; fruit 10–15 mm; mainland ..... S. xanti

8' Corolla lobes >= tube + throat, often reflexed

13. Inflorescence of generally 2 umbel-like clusters, axis generally forked

14. Corolla purple to violet, lobes each with 2 green spots at base; plant ± woody, ± climbing ..... S. dulcamara

14' Corolla white to pale violet, lobes not spotted; plant not woody, generally ± reclining ..... S. furcatum

13' Inflorescence umbel- or raceme-like, axis not forked

15. Calyx enlarged, enclosing fruit base; fruit ± yellow or green ..... S. physalifolium var. nitidibaccatum

15' Calyx not enlarged, not enclosing fruit base; fruit black or ± green

16. Anthers generally 2.5–4 mm ..... S. douglasii

16' Anthers 1.4–2.2 mm

17. Seeds 1–1.5 mm; hairs ± appressed or curved, nonglandular ..... S. americanum

17' Seeds 1.5–2.5 mm; hairs ± spreading or curved, glandular and not ..... S. nigrum


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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