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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

PHACELIA

Genevieve K. Walden, Robert Patterson, Laura M. Garrison & Debra R. Hansen


Annual to perennial herb, generally glandular-hairy, taprooted or from ± thick caudex. Leaf: generally cauline, generally alternate, simple to 2-pinnately compound, generally ± reduced upward. Inflorescence: cyme, generally dense, coiled, generally 1-sided; pedicels generally <= 5 mm, generally straight. Flower: sepals generally 5, generally fused at base, generally equal, generally ± alike, generally persistent, enlarging in fruit; corolla generally deciduous, at least some persistent and withering in fruit in some species, rotate to tubular or bell- or funnel-shaped, ± white, blue, purple, pink or yellow, tube and throat not always clearly differentiated, generally glabrous inside, scales of tube base 0 or free from or fused to filament bases, generally white, nectary gland on petal midvein generally 0, each petal with generally 0, sometimes 2–many translucent areas, 2 or 4 of which parallel; stamens generally attached at same level, generally equal, generally exserted, bases generally not wider, with 2 or generally 0 wings, filaments generally white, pollen generally tan; ovary chamber 1, sometimes appearing as 2 due to intrusion of the 2 placentas, placentas parietal, enlarging and meeting in fruit, style 2-lobed, generally hairy proximal to lobes, disk proximal to ovary generally inconspicuous. Fruit: capsule, oblong to spheric, generally rounded at base, generally beaked. Seed: 1–many (number sometimes due to ovule abortion), oblong to spheric, generally brown; abaxially generally pitted or cross-furrowed.
± 210 species: America; some cultivated for ornamental. (Greek: cluster, from dense inflorescence) Dermatitis caused by contact with hairs, especially glandular, of P. campanularia, P. crenulata, P. ixodes, P. minor, P. parryi, P. pedicellata (Reynolds et al. 1986 Contact Dermatitis 14:39–44). [Hansen et al. 2009 Syst Bot 34:737–746; Walden & Patterson 2012 Madroño 59:211–222] Some California per species intergrade, hybridize, difficult to distinguish. Phacelia ixodes Kellogg, included in TJM (1993), not known from California. Since TJM2, Phacelia dalesiana J.T. Howell transferred to Howellanthus as Howellanthus dalesianus (J.T. Howell) Walden & R. Patt. Regarding indument in this treatment: minute (for e.g., puberulent) < 0.2 mm; short = 0.2–2 mm; long > 2 mm.
Unabridged references: [Gilbert et al. 2005 Syst Bot 30:627–634; Reynolds et al. 1986 Contact Dermatitis 14:39–44; Reynolds & Rodriguez 1979 Phytochemistry 18:1567–1568; Reynolds & Rodriguez 1981a Phytochemistry 20:1365–1366; Reynolds & Rodriguez 1981b Planta Medica 43:187–193; Reynolds & Rodriguez 1986 Phytochemistry 25:1617–1619.]

Key to Phacelia

Key to Groups

1. Biennial or perennial herb from ± woody taproot or branched caudex ..... Group 1

1' Annual from slender taproot (some key in both of the following groups)

2. Most cauline leaf blades deeply lobed to compound (some sinuses reaching midrib) ..... Group 2

2' Most cauline leaf blades entire to shallowly lobed (proximal-most sometimes deeply few-lobed at base, but sinuses generally not reaching midrib) ..... Group 3

Group 1: Biennial or perennial herb from ± woody taproot or branched caudex

1. Seeds 3–200; calyx lobes generally ± alike

2. Leaf blade 5–25 mm, ± round; stamens included; style cleft < 1/4; n White and Inyo Mountains, n&e Mojave Desert ..... P. perityloides

3. Corolla 12–15 mm; pedicels in fruit 10–30 mm, reflexed; fruit 2–2.5 mm ..... var. jaegeri

3' Corolla 10–12 mm; pedicels in fruit 5–15 mm, ascending to spreading; fruit ± 4 mm ..... var. perityloides

2' Leaf blade 15–120 mm, lanceolate or oblong to widely ovate; stamens exserted; style cleft 1/3–3/4; Northwestern California, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau

4. Corolla persistent in fruit; nectary gland present; seed pits in longitudinal rows ..... P. sericea var. ciliosa

4' Corolla deciduous; nectary gland 0; seed pits not in longitudinal rows

5. Inflorescence head-like, dense; stamens glabrous; plant 10–30 cm ..... P. hydrophylloides

5' Inflorescence panicle-like, generally ± open proximally; stamens hairy; plants generally > 30 cm

6. Corolla 10–12 mm, pale blue to purple; seeds 30–60 ..... P. bolanderi

6' Corolla 3–7 mm, cream to green or brown-white; seeds 12–16 ..... P. procera

1' Seeds 1–4; calyx lobes ± not alike

7. Leaves cauline, compound; leaflets coarsely toothed or lobed ..... P. ramosissima

7' Leaves mostly basal, generally simple (or basal lobed to compound); leaflets entire or generally 0

8. Basal leaves simple, entire or 2–7-lobed

9. Stem densely glandular; leaves generally ± green (± gray) ..... P. corymbosa

9' Stem generally not or sparsely glandular; leaves generally silvery to ± white or ± gray or ± green

10. Basal leaves generally ovate to obovate to ± round; coastal dunes, coastal foothills, or coastal mtns, < 1000 m

11. Lobes of basal leaves 0(2); corolla white to cream; coastal dunes, n North Coast, < 20 m ..... P. argentea

11' Lobes of basal leaves generally 2–7; corolla blue to purple (white); coastal bluffs, woodland, chaparral, rocky slopes, s North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, < 1000 m ..... P. californica (2)

10' Basal leaves generally lanceolate to widely elliptic; inland mtns, 380–4000 m ..... P. hastata

12. Stem decumbent to ascending, 5–20(30) cm; hairs generally spreading; calyx lobes generally glandular ..... var. compacta

12' Stem ascending to ± erect, 20–50 cm; hairs generally ± appressed; calyx lobes generally not glandular ..... var. hastata

8' Basal leaves generally dissected or compound, segments or leaflets 3–15

13. Stem sparsely stiff-hairy; veins of basal leaves generally not prominent ..... P. mutabilis

13' Stem densely stiff-hairy; veins of basal leaves generally prominent

14. Biennial or weak perennial herb; central stem erect, generally 1 ..... P. heterophylla var. virgata

14' Perennial herb; central stems generally decumbent to ascending, generally > 1

15. Calyx lobes lanceolate to narrowly ovate to obovate, ± overlapping in fruit; corolla narrowly campanulate ..... P. imbricata

16. Segments of basal leaves 3–7; outer calyx lobes lanceolate, not glandular ..... var. patula

16' Segments of basal leaves 7–15; outer calyx lobes narrowly ovate to ovate to obovate, generally glandular

17. Corolla lobes erect to ± divergent; inflorescence dense, spike-like ..... var. bernardina

17' Corolla lobes erect to incurved; inflorescence open, panicle-like ..... var. imbricata

15' Calyx lobes linear to narrowly ovate or oblanceolate, not overlapping in fruit; corolla campanulate

18. Corolla white to cream, 5–9 mm, limb 4–8 mm diam; stamens 9–14 mm; calyx lobes 8–12 mm in fruit ..... P. egena

18' Corolla blue to purple (white) or green- or yellow-white, 3.5–7 mm, limb 3–6 mm diam; stamens 7–10 mm; calyx lobes 5–8 mm in fruit

19. Style 8–12 mm; corolla blue to purple (white) ..... P. californica (2)

19' Style 6–9 mm; corolla green- or yellow-white ..... P. nemoralis

20. Mid-stem generally < 7 mm diam; corolla 3.5–5 mm; seed 1.5–2 mm ..... var. nemoralis

20' Mid-stem generally 7–10 mm diam; corolla 5–6 mm; seed 2–2.5 mm ..... var. oregonensis

Group 2: Annual from slender taproot; most cauline leaf blades deeply lobed to compound (some sinuses reaching midrib)

1. Corollas, or at least some, persistent, withering in fruit, ± enclosing fruit

2. Seeds 1–4; stamens exserted; corolla blue, purple, or white

3. Stem stiffly erect; leaflet tips acute; inflorescence dense, generally 2–4-branched; fruit glabrous proximally; calyx lobes ± alike ..... P. tanacetifolia

3' Stem decumbent to weakly erect; leaflet tips rounded; inflorescence ± open proximally, dense distally, generally unbranched; fruit ± puberulent proximally; calyx lobes not alike ..... P. umbrosa

2' Seeds 5–30; stamens included; corolla generally yellow (lobes occasionally ± purple in Phacelia adenophora; ± white in Phacelia tetramera)

4. Corolla puberulent inside; stamens puberulent

5. Corolla 3.5–8 mm; style 1.5–3 mm; stamens 2.5–5 mm ..... P. adenophora

5' Corolla 2–4 mm; style 0.5–1.5 mm; stamens 1.5–3 mm ..... P. monoensis

4' Corolla glabrous inside; stamens glabrous

6. Seeds cross-striate, striae 12–14; plants 10–40 cm ..... P. inundata

6' Seeds cross-furrowed, furrows 5–9; plants 2–15 cm

7. Sepals, petals generally 5; corolla 2–3 mm ..... P. inyoensis

7' Sepals, petals generally 4; corolla 1.3–2 mm ..... P. tetramera

1' Corollas generally deciduous in fruit

8. Seeds generally >= 7

9. Corolla generally 2–6 mm, tubular- or bell-shaped; stamens, styles ± 1–4 mm

10. Glands on distal stem, inflorescence axis, pedicels dark

11. Inflorescence axis generally exceeding leaves; seeds 15–30, cross-furrows 5–8; s Inner South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, White and Inyo Mountains, Desert ..... P. affinis

11' Inflorescence axis generally not exceeding leaves; seeds 7–14, cross-furrows 8–10; Cascade Range, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... P. glandulifera

10' Glands on distal stem, inflorescence axis, pedicels 0 or not dark

12. Pedicels straight; calyx lobes generally linear to oblong; seeds cross-furrowed; Desert ..... P. ivesiana

12' Pedicels curved; calyx lobes oblanceolate or obovate to spoon-shaped; seeds pitted; South Coast ..... P. stellaris

9' Corolla 5–20 mm, rotate to funnel- or bell-shaped; stamens 3–9 mm, styles 2–8 mm

13. Seeds cross-furrowed

14. Inflorescence axis generally not exceeding leaves; proximal leaves 1–2-compound; stamens puberulent ..... P. bicolor

14' Inflorescence axis generally exceeding leaves; proximal leaves deeply lobed to 1-compound; stamens glabrous

15. Stem generally erect, 7–60 cm; corolla lobes white or pink; seed 0.5–1 mm ..... P. brachyloba

15' Stem decumbent to erect, 5–30 cm; corolla lobes blue or pink or violet; seed 1–1.5 mm ..... P. fremontii

13' Seeds pitted

16. Stem generally erect, 30–120 cm, 0–few-branched distal to base; leaves densely glandular — s Channel Islands (except Santa Barbara Island) ..... P. lyonii

16' Stem spreading to decumbent, ascending, or erect, 2–40 cm, generally branched at base; leaves not densely glandular

17. Fruit 6–9 mm, obovoid, ± compressed proximally ..... P. insularis

18. Stem generally decumbent to ascending; style 2.5–4 mm; seed 1.5–2 mm; North Coast, Central Coast ..... var. continentis

18' Stem generally erect; style 5–6 mm; seed 1–1.5 mm; n Channel Islands ..... var. insularis

17' Fruit 4–7 mm, ovoid, ± swollen proximally

19. Corolla tube, throat white, lobes ± violet ..... P. davidsonii

19' Corolla light blue to purple throughout ..... P. douglasii

8' Seeds 1–6 (1–12 in Phacelia malvifolia)

20. Simple leaves present, especially distally, entire or toothed

21. Leaf blade ± deltate to ± round; corolla cream-white ..... P. malvifolia

21' Leaf blade linear to ovate or oblanceolate; corolla ± blue to lavender

22. Calyx lobes in flower 3–5 mm, not alike, especially in fruit; stamens 2–4 mm; mtns s and e of Great Central Valley ..... P. austromontana

22' Calyx lobes in flower 2–3 mm, ± alike in fruit; stamens 4–5 mm; mtns west of Great Central Valley ..... P. breweri

20' Simple leaves present or not, distally or not, generally toothed to lobed

23. Calyx lobes generally 3–5-pinnately lobed — s Channel Islands (San Clemente, Santa Barbara islands) ..... P. floribunda

23' Calyx lobes entire to crenate

24. Calyx lobes puberulent abaxially, margin stiff-ciliate, midrib and ± 2° veins raised

25. Calyx lobes 4–6 mm, 6–10 mm in fruit; corolla 8–10 mm; stamens 8–12 mm; style 6–8 mm; w California Floristic Province, c&s Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Great Central Valley ..... P. ciliata

25' Calyx lobes 3–4 mm, 5–7 mm in fruit; corolla 3–4 mm; stamens 1–3 mm; style ± 2 mm; e Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau ..... P. thermalis

24' Calyx lobes generally short- to long-hairy abaxially, margin ciliate but not stiffly so, midrib only raised

26. Calyx lobes ± not alike, especially in fruit; seeds 1–2

27. Calyx lobes entire to crenate; corolla pale blue to pale lavender; seeds generally 1 ..... P. platyloba

27' Calyx lobes generally entire; corolla blue or white, throat marked with dark lavender spots opposite corolla scales, spots 0 if corolla white; seeds generally 1–2(4) ..... P. distans

26' Calyx lobes ± alike; seeds generally 2–4

28. Stamens, styles included; stamens 3–5 mm; style 3–5 mm ..... P. cryptantha

28' Stamens, style exserted; stamens 4–15 mm; style 5–15 mm

29. Seed adaxially not clearly ridged and grooved; glandular hairs of inflorescence sparse

30. Calyx lobes ± straight, ± enclosing fruit, in contact with fruit at base and distally ..... P. hubbyi

30' Calyx lobes ± curved, forming loose basket around fruit, in contact with fruit only at base

31. Fruit hairs sparse, short, not bulb-based ..... P. vallis-mortae

31' Fruit hairs dense, long, bulb-based ..... P. cicutaria

32. Corolla yellow-white; calyx lobes ± yellow- to white-long-stiff-hairy ..... var. cicutaria

32' Corolla lavender; calyx lobes gray-long-stiff-hairy ..... var. hispida

29' Seed adaxially with central ridge separating 2 longitudinal grooves; glandular hairs of inflorescence dense

33. Calyx lobes 1–1.5 mm > fruit; pedicels ± thread-like ..... P. pedicellata

33' Calyx lobes ± = fruit; pedicels stout

34. Corolla lobes white; fruit ovoid, sparsely short-stiff-hairy ..... P. amabilis

34' Corolla lobes blue-lavender or purple; fruit ovoid to spheric, puberulent ..... P. crenulata

35. Corolla ± 4 mm, tube, throat white, lobes lavender to blue; stamens, style exserted < 2 mm ..... var. minutiflora

35' Corolla >= 4.5 mm, tube white at least at base, throat, lobes purple; stamens, style exserted >= 3.5 mm

36. Stem glandular distally; corolla 5–10 mm; stamens unequal, style exserted >= 9 mm; seed margin entire ..... var. ambigua

36' Stem generally glandular throughout; corolla 4.5–7 mm; stamens equal, style exserted 3.5–11 mm; seed margin corrugated ..... var. crenulata

Group 3: Annual from slender taproot; most cauline leaf blades entire to shallowly lobed (proximal-most sometimes deeply few-lobed at base, but sinuses generally not reaching midrib)

1. Corollas, or at least some, persistent, withering in fruit, ± enclosing fruit

2. Seeds 1–4; stamens 3–7 mm, exserted; Sierra Nevada

3. Fruit ± spheric, not compressed; calyx lobes 4–7 mm in fruit; seeds 2–4; leaves simple, lobes 0 ..... P. quickii

3' Fruit ellipsoid to ovoid, ± compressed; calyx lobes 3–4 mm in fruit; seeds 1–2; leaves generally simple, lobes 0–6

4. Corolla violet to purple; seeds (1)2; calyx lobes ± not alike ..... P. marcescens

4' Corolla white to pale blue; seeds generally 1; calyx lobes ± alike ..... P. stebbinsii

2' Seeds generally 5–50; stamens 1–5 mm, included; East of Sierra Nevada, n Mojave Desert

5. Seeds 20–50, pitted; calyx lobes ± not alike ..... P. saxicola

5' Seeds 5–25, cross-furrowed; calyx lobes generally alike

6. Corolla puberulent inside; stamens puberulent ..... P. monoensis

6' Corolla glabrous inside; stamens glabrous

7. Sepals, petals generally 5; corolla 2–3 mm ..... P. inyoensis

7' Sepals, petals generally 4; corolla 1.3–2 mm ..... P. tetramera

1' Corolla deciduous in fruit

8. Seeds 1–4

9. Cauline leaf blade generally as long as wide; leaves, stems, and calyx lobes long-stiff-hairy, hairs bulb-based

10. Corolla 5–7 mm; stamens 5–10 mm; seeds generally 4 ..... P. malvifolia var. malvifolia

10' Corolla 3–5 mm; stamens 2–3 mm; seeds generally 2 ..... P. rattanii

9' Cauline leaf blade generally longer than wide; leaves, stems, and calyx lobes not long-stiff-hairy, hairs not bulb-based

11. Leaf crenate to lobed, lobes generally crenate or ± toothed; seed adaxially with central ridge separating 2 longitudinal grooves

12. Corolla 3–7 mm; stamens, style 2–5 mm

13. Corolla 5–7 mm, widely bell-shaped; stamens, style 3–5 mm; seeds 2.5–3.5 mm; fruit ovoid ..... P. anelsonii

13' Corolla 3–5 mm, bell-shaped; stamens, style 2–3 mm; seeds 2–3 mm; fruit spheric ..... P. coerulea

12' Corolla 4–10 mm; stamens 10–15 mm, style 12–15 mm ..... P. crenulata

14. Corolla ± 4 mm; stamens, style exserted < 2 mm ..... var. minutiflora

14' Corolla >= 4.5 mm; stamens, style exserted >= 3.5 mm

15. Stem glandular distally; corolla 5–10 mm; stamens unequal; style exserted >= 9 mm; seed margin entire ..... var. ambigua

15' Stem generally glandular throughout; corolla 4.5–7 mm; stamens equal; style exserted 3.5–11 mm; seed margin corrugated ..... var. crenulata

11' Leaf entire or lobed, lobes generally entire or few-toothed; seed adaxially not ridged and grooved

16. Stamens short-hairy ..... P. humilis

17. Calyx lobes 8–12 mm in fruit; stamens 6–8 mm, clearly exserted ..... var. dudleyi

17' Calyx lobes 5–8 mm in fruit; stamens 4–6 mm, ± exserted ..... var. humilis

16' Stamens glabrous

18. Corolla narrowly bell-shaped, 2–4 mm, scales yellow ..... P. racemosa

18' Corolla widely bell-shaped or rotate, 3–6 mm, scales not yellow

19. Stem wiry; corolla rotate, lobes violet to purple ..... P. greenei

19' Stem not wiry; corolla widely bell-shaped, lobes blue to lavender

20. Corolla pale blue to blue; fruit compressed ..... P. breweri

20' Corolla pale lavender to lavender; fruit not compressed

21. Style cleft ± to base; calyx lobes subequal to equal, alike ..... P. eisenii

21' Style cleft generally 1/3–1/2, calyx lobes unequal, not alike, especially in fruit

22. Calyx lobes in fruit 4–6 mm, short-stiff-hairy, cilia < 1 mm ..... P. austromontana

22' Calyx lobes in fruit 8–10 mm, puberulent, cilia < to > 1 mm ..... P. novenmillensis

8' Seeds generally >= 5 (occasionally fewer due to abortion)

23. Leaf blades, especially proximal, generally as wide as long

24. Corolla 7–40 mm; stamens (4)10–45 mm; style (3)8–45 mm

25. Stamen bases with 0 wings

26. Cymes dense; plants 30–200 cm; some basal leaves not deeply lobed; corolla limb 25–40 mm diam ..... P. grandiflora

26' Cymes open; plants 10–100 cm; some basal leaves deeply lobed; corolla limb 10–25 mm diam ..... P. viscida

27. Corolla rotate to bell-shaped, white, limb 10–15 mm diam; style included, 3–10 mm — Santa Barbara, Ventura cos. ..... var. albiflora

27' Corolla rotate, throat white, limb 15–25 mm diam, pale lavender to bright blue; style included or exserted, 5–16 mm ..... var. viscida

25' Stamen bases with 2 wings

28. Stamen base wings hairy; corolla purple (white) throughout or with white spot at base of each lobe

29. Corolla purple (white) throughout, ± bell-shaped with slight constriction at throat, tube length > limb width ..... P. minor

29' Corolla purple with white spot at base of each lobe, shallow-rotate to widely bell-shaped, tube length < limb width ..... P. parryi

28' Stamen base wings glabrous; corolla white or pink to bright blue throughout or with markings at base of sinuses

30. Seeds 10–24; corolla 7–12 mm, white to pale magenta or pale blue, occasionally with diffuse area lacking pigment at base of sinuses ..... P. longipes

30' Seeds >= 40; corolla 6–40 mm, deep to sky blue with white spots at base of sinuses

31. Style cleft generally 2/3–3/4; s High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area (e slope), w edge Mojave Desert ..... P. nashiana

31' Style cleft generally 1/4–1/2; Mojave Desert, n&w Sonoran Desert ..... P. campanularia

32. Corolla rotate, generally < 25 mm, length <= width; w Sonoran Desert ..... var. campanularia

32' Corolla funnel-shaped, generally > 25 mm, length >= width; Mojave Desert, n Sonoran Desert ..... var. vasiformis

24' Corolla 3–12 mm; stamens 2–10 mm; style 1–12 mm

33. Leaves, stems, calyx lobes long-stiff-hairy, hairs bulb-based; fruit 2–3 mm ..... P. malvifolia var. loasifolia

33' Leaves, stems, calyx lobes short-stiff-hairy, hairs not bulb-based; fruit 3–7 mm

34. Seeds not pitted, cross-furrows 4–8; calyx lobes 1.5–3 mm, 2–5 mm in fruit; fruit generally spheric

35. Corolla 8–12 mm; stamens 5–6 mm; style 5–6 mm ..... P. calthifolia

35' Corolla 4–7 mm; stamens 2–4 mm; style 2–3 mm

36. Corolla cream-white; inflorescence axis among leaves, glands not dark ..... P. neglecta

36' Corolla violet to purple; inflorescence axis generally exceeding leaves, glands ± dark ..... P. pachyphylla

34' Seeds pitted, cross-furrows 0; calyx lobes 2–5 mm, 4–9 mm in fruit; fruit ovoid to ± oblong

37. Corolla 6–12 mm; style 3–5 mm

38. Corolla narrowly bell-shaped, limb generally 3–5 mm diam ..... P. mustelina

38' Corolla widely bell-shaped, limb generally > 5 mm diam ..... P. pulchella var. gooddingii

37' Corolla 3–6 mm; style 1–2 mm

39. Leaf blade widely elliptic to obovate, base tapered, margin entire to ± toothed; calyx lobes not alike ..... P. parishii (2)

39' Leaf blade ± round, base truncate to ± lobed, margin clearly toothed; calyx lobes generally alike

40. Calyx lobes 6–8 mm in fruit, some 1–2 mm wide; leaf blade crenate to irregularly toothed ..... P. peirsoniana

40' Calyx lobes 4–6 mm in fruit, generally < 1 mm wide; leaf blade dentate to weakly lobed, lobes obtuse ..... P. rotundifolia

23' Leaf blades generally longer than wide

41. Stem prostrate to ± ascending; corolla 1–2 mm; inflorescence axillary, partly hidden by leaves ..... P. cookei

41' Stem generally ascending to erect; corolla >= 2 mm; inflorescence generally terminal, not hidden by leaves

42. Seeds 20–80+

43. Leaves cauline, gradually reduced distally on stem; blade toothed to ± lobed ..... P. lemmonii

43' Leaves ± basal, ± abruptly reduced distally on stem; blade entire to ± toothed ..... P. parishii (2)

42' Seeds <= 20

44. Proximal pedicels > distal (especially in fruit), generally S-shaped or recurved in fruit

45. Fruit obovoid, ± flattened; corolla lavender to violet; North Coast, Central Coast, n Channel Islands ..... P. insularis

46. Stem generally decumbent to ascending; style 2.5–4 mm; seed 1.5–2 mm; North Coast, Central Coast ..... var. continentis

46' Stem generally erect; style 5–6 mm; seed 1–1.5 mm; n Channel Islands ..... var. insularis

45' Fruit ovoid, swollen at base; corolla tube white to ± yellow, lobes blue to violet; Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert

47. Proximal pedicels 2–8 mm in fruit; fruit 2.5–3.5 mm ..... P. orogenes

47' Proximal pedicels 5–25 mm in fruit; fruit 4–7 mm

48. Corolla 4–8 mm; style 2–4 mm ..... P. curvipes

48' Corolla 7–15 mm; style 4–8 mm ..... P. davidsonii

44' Proximal pedicels generally = distal, generally straight in fruit

49. Leaf linear, oblong, or narrowly (ob)lanceolate, tapered to indistinct petiole

50. Calyx lobes 1–3 mm, 2–8 mm in fruit; corolla 2–6 mm; stamens, style 2–5 mm

51. Corolla 2–3 mm; stamens, style ± 2 mm; style glabrous; Klamath Ranges ..... P. leonis

51' Corolla 3–6 mm; stamens, style 3–5 mm; style puberulent; Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range ..... P. pringlei

50' Calyx lobes 3–5 mm, 5–15 mm in fruit; corolla 5–10 mm; stamens, style 5–14 mm

52. Pedicels < 2 mm in fruit; calyx lobes ± alike; fruit 5–8 mm; ne California ..... P. linearis

52' Pedicels generally 2–5 mm in fruit; calyx lobes not alike, especially in fruit; fruit 3–5 mm; s California

53. Stamens included or ± exserted, subequal, 5–9 mm, filaments generally white; corolla tube base white to lavender, lobes ± spreading, lavender ..... P. exilis

53' Stamens exserted, unequal, 5–14 mm, filaments violet; corolla tube base generally yellow, lobes ± erect, white, aging pale blue ..... P. mohavensis

49' Leaf elliptic or lanceolate to ovate, clearly petioled

54. Seeds not pitted, cross-furrows 7–9 ..... P. gymnoclada

54' Seeds pitted, cross-furrows 0

55. Corolla 6–15 mm

56. Leaf blade toothed to ± lobed; calyx lobes short-hairy, not clearly ciliate; corolla tube yellow, lobes lavender to purple

57. Corolla 9–14 mm; seeds 8–10; nw Peninsular Ranges ..... P. keckii

57' Corolla 7–11 mm; seeds 10–16; Inner North Coast Ranges, c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California ..... P. suaveolens

56' Leaf blade entire or few-lobed near base; calyx lobes puberulent to short-hairy, clearly stiff-ciliate; corolla lavender to violet

58. Corolla 6–10 mm; stamens 3–5 mm; styles 3–5.5 mm ..... P. congdonii

58' Corolla 10–15 mm; stamens 8–10 mm; styles 6–10 mm ..... P. divaricata

55' Corolla 3–8 mm

59. Stamens 7–8 mm; style 5–9 mm

60. Stems short- to long-stiff-hairy, many hairs > 1 mm; corolla generally white; Outer South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges ..... P. grisea

60' Stems puberulent to short-stiff-hairy, hairs generally < 1 mm; corolla lavender to violet; s High Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau ..... P. purpusii

59' Stamens 2–4 mm; style 1–4 mm

61. Calyx lobes 4–6 mm in fruit, cilia < 1 mm; inflorescence open proximally; White and Inyo Mountains, ne Desert Mountains (Clark Mtn Range) ..... P. barnebyana

61' Calyx lobes 7–11 mm in fruit, cilia generally > 1 mm; inflorescence dense; s Cascade Range, n&c Sierra Nevada, e San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges

62. Corolla white to light lavender, lobes violet-streaked; leaf veins not impressed; fruit not beaked; calyx lobes ± alike; e San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges ..... P. phacelioides

62' Corolla tube white to lavender, lobes generally purple; leaf veins impressed; fruit beaked; calyx lobes not alike; s Cascade Range, n&c Sierra Nevada ..... P. vallicola

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Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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