Directory       News       Site Map       Home
    Jepson eFlora
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Robert Patterson & Richard R. Halse

Annual. Stem: simple to branched, prostrate to erect, fleshy, brittle, angled or winged, glabrous to generally bristly (prickly). Leaf: cauline, lower generally opposite, upper opposite or alternate, generally reduced; petiole generally bristly-ciliate; blade pinnate-toothed or -lobed, generally bristly. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in leaf axils or opposite leaves; pedicels longer in fruit, recurved. Flower: calyx bell-shaped to rotate, sinuses generally with spreading or reflexed appendages; corolla bell-shaped to rotate, white, blue, or purple, spotted or marked or not; stamens included; ovary chamber 1, style 1, generally 1/3–1/2 forked. Fruit: generally 2–7 mm wide, spheric to ovoid, hairy, generally enclosed by calyx. Seed: ovoid, smooth, wrinkled or pitted, with a conic, colorless appendage at 1 end.
11 species: southeastern United States, western North America. (Greek: woodland-loving)
Unabridged references: [Constance 1941 Univ California Publ Bot 19:341–398]

Key to Nemophila

1. Stem with minute reflexed prickles; lower leaves alternate ..... N. breviflora

1' Stem without reflexed prickles; lower leaves opposite (except Nemophila pulchella var. gracilis)

2. Corolla >= 10 mm wide (6–40 mm wide in Nemophila menziesii)

3. Seeds smooth or pitted; corolla with or without purple spot at lobe tips

4. Corolla 10–50 mm wide; style 3–6 mm ..... N. maculata

4' Corolla 2–10 mm wide; style < 2 mm ..... N. spatulata (2)

3' Seeds wrinkled and tubercled; corolla without purple spot at lobe tips ..... N. menziesii

5. Upper, lower leaves dissimilar, lower lobed, upper entire to toothed

6. Lower leaves 5–7-lobed; corolla 6–15 mm wide ..... var. integrifolia (2)

6' Lower leaves 6–13-lobed; corolla 10–40 mm wide ..... var. menziesii (2)

5' Upper, lower leaves similar, deep-5–13-lobed

7. Corolla white, black-dotted from center ± to margin ..... var. atomaria

7' Corolla blue with white center or blue-veined, generally black-dotted at center ..... var. menziesii (2)

2' Corolla < 10(12) mm wide

8. Corolla generally rotate; filaments > corolla tube

9. Calyx appendages 1–4 mm in fruit; seeds wrinkled and tubercled ..... N. menziesii var. integrifolia (2)

9' Calyx appendages 0–0.5 mm in fruit; seeds smooth or ± rough ..... N. pulchella

10. Corolla blue with white center, >> calyx; style 2–3 mm ..... var. pulchella

10' Corolla white, ± >= calyx; style <= 2 mm

11. Cauline leaves opposite; style < 1 mm; seeds 2–4 ..... var. fremontii

11' Cauline leaves alternate; style 1–2 mm; seed generally 1 ..... var. gracilis

8' Corolla bell- to bowl-shaped; filaments <= corolla tube

12. Corolla generally dark-veined, dotted, lobes occasionally purple-spotted

13. Leaf oblong to ovate, deep-5–9-lobed ..... N. pedunculata

13' Leaf oblanceolate to spoon-shaped, shallow-3–5-lobed ..... N. spatulata (2)

12' Corolla not dark-veined, dotted, lobes not purple-spotted

14. Style 2–4 mm; lower leaves deep-lobed, lobes similar, generally well separated, stalked ..... N. heterophylla

14' Style < 2 mm; lower leaves cut or shallow-lobed, lobes dissimilar, merging or not stalked ..... N. parviflora

15. Upper leaves alternate, lobes deep, generally acute ..... var. parviflora

15' Upper leaves opposite, lobes shallow, rounded or obtuse

16. Leaf glabrous to bristly, blade base tapered ..... var. austiniae

16' Leaf long-hairy, blade base truncate or cordate ..... var. quercifolia


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.