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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Genevieve K. Walden, Robert Patterson & Richard R. Halse

[Biennial or] perennial herb from rhizomes [taproots]; roots fleshy-fibrous and fibrous [or tuber-like]. Stem: suberect to erect, simple or branched, fleshy, or 0 and leaves from rhizomes. Leaf: simple, pinnate-[palmate-]lobed, or compound, basal or cauline, alternate, mottled white in shade; petiole widened, proximally purple, bases clasping, persistent, fleshy, juicy; leaflets toothed or lobed, hairy, generally paler abaxially, basal pair free, terminal ± united. Inflorescence: generally branched, generally head-like cymes; peduncles proximally purplish, in fruit erect or recurved; pedicels generally elongate, in fruit spreading or recurved. Flower: calyx bell-shaped, lobes generally equal, generally ± alike, linear to narrowly oblong or lanceolate, acute to obtuse, glabrous or hairy, generally ciliate, generally ± enlarging in fruit, sinus appendages 0 [present]; corolla lobed to middle, > calyx, bell-shaped, white, cream, ± green, purple, or blue, tube with linear scales at base forming channeled pollinator guide, lobes with nectary gland on midvein, hairy; stamens equal, exserted, filaments at mid-level generally hairy; ovary chamber 1, placentas parietal, style 1, exserted, glabrous, cleft < 1/4, stigmas 2, base persistent, disk proximal to ovary. Fruit: capsule, 3–5 mm, spheric; tip generally bristly, loosely enclosed by calyx. Seed: 1–4, oblong to spheric, brown or yellow- or red-brown, net-like, fleshy appendages 0.
11 species: North America; some cultivated as ornamentals. (Greek: water leaf) [Constance 1942 Amer Midl Naturalist 27:710–731] Hydrophyllum capitatum var. alpinum raised to species rank, as Hydrophyllum alpestre.
Unabridged references: [Beckmann 1979 Amer J Bot 66:1053–1061]

Key to Hydrophyllum

1. Inflorescence near ground, << subtending leaves; anthers << 1 mm ..... H. alpestre

1' Inflorescence well above ground, generally >= subtending leaves; anthers 1–2 mm

2. Leaf wide-ovate to round; leaflets generally 3–5 ..... H. tenuipes

2' Leaf ± oblong; leaflets 7–15

3. Leaflets acute to acuminate, teeth generally 4–8 per side ..... H. fendleri var. albifrons

3' Leaflets obtuse to acute, teeth generally 2–4 per side ..... H. occidentale


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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