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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.


Annual to perennial herb [shrub]. Stem: often 4-angled; hairs generally short, stiff. Leaf: reduced distally on stem; blade entire to pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: spike, often in panicle-like clusters, generally terminal, generally elongated in fruit. Flower: calyx 5-ribbed, 5-toothed, hairs generally strigose or appressed; corolla 4–5-lobed, generally ± radial, sometimes bilateral and 2-lipped; stamens 4; ovary 4-chambered, ovules 4, style 1, lobes 2, 1 tooth-like, 1 with ± spheric stigma. Fruit: nutlets 4, generally oblong.
± 250 species: temperate, tropical America, Mediterranean Europe. (Latin: ancient name) [Munir 2002 J Adelaide Bot Gard 18:21–103; Yeo 1990 Kew Bull 45:101–120; Yuan & Olmstead 2008 Molec Phylogen Evol 48:23–33] Verbena gooddingii, Verbena pulchella often placed in Glandularia (sister to Verbena in strictest sense).

Key to Verbena

1. Corolla 8–14 mm, limb 6–10 mm wide; calyx 5–9.5 mm

2. Leaves 3–5-lobed; calyx hairs spreading ..... V. gooddingii

2' Leaves 1–2-pinnately dissected; calyx hairs appressed ..... V. pulchella

1' Corolla 1.5–6 mm, limb < 5 mm wide; calyx 2–4.5 mm

3. Flower bract 4–8 mm, 2–4 mm > calyx; stem prostrate to decumbent ..... V. bracteata

3' Flower bract 1–4.5 mm, generally <= calyx; stem generally ascending to erect

4. Most cauline leaf blades 1–2-lobed (lobes proximal to mid-blade 8–25 mm deep), toothed

5. Herbage generally sparsely strigose; calyx minutely strigose ..... V. menthifolia

5' Herbage and calyx short-spreading-hairy ..... V. lasiostachys (2)

6. Leaf adaxial face gray-green, generally ± soft-hairy; nutlet scar ± brown, ± rough at 20× ..... var. lasiostachys

6' Leaf adaxial face green, generally stiff-hairy; nutlet scar white-papillate at 20× ..... var. scabrida

4' Most cauline leaf blades generally unlobed (except some Verbena hastata), entire or generally toothed, teeth 2–8 mm

7. Lower and mid-cauline petioles generally 1–2.5 cm, occasionally narrowly winged

8. Petioles, inflorescence axis, calyx short-spreading-(generally soft-) hairy (see 6. for vars.) ..... V. lasiostachys (2)

8' Petioles, inflorescence axis, and calyx strigose or scabrous

9. Fruits generally overlapping (axis with 8–10 fruits per cm); leaves rough-puberulent, sparsely short-bristly or ± scabrous adaxially ..... V. hastata

9' Fruits not overlapping, especially below (axis generally with < 8 fruits per cm); leaves strigose to scabrous adaxially ..... V. scabra

7' Lower and mid-cauline petioles generally 0, blade sessile or ± clasping

10. Fruits not overlapping (especially separated proximal to mid-inflorescence); flower bracts 3.5–4 mm; calyx 4–4.5 mm; spikes 1–5 per cluster ..... V. californica

10' Fruits generally overlapping along inflorescence; flower bracts 3–3.5 mm; calyx 3–3.5 mm; spikes generally (1)3–17 per cluster

11. Leaf base cordate to truncate, generally clasping; spikes ± 5–6 mm diam in fruit ..... V. bonariensis

11' Leaf base ± acute, subsessile; spikes 3–4 mm diam in fruit ..... V. litoralis


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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