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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Perennial subshrub, evergreen, rhizomed. Leaf: ± basal, reniform, ovate, ± round, elliptic, or obovate, ± entire to crenate or dentate, generally petioled (if vestigial, lanceolate to deltate, ± not green, sessile). Inflorescence: raceme, ± erect, not 1-sided, elongate; scape smooth, glabrous, bracts generally 1–several, deltate or lanceolate; flower bract 1 per flower, < to >> pedicel. Flower: radial, ± closed or subradial or bilateral, ± open, parts in 5s, free; petals without tubercles, upper 2 generally forming hood over upturned stamens; stamens 10, filaments generally widened at base, smooth, glabrous, anther generally with tube-like constrictions subtending pores; nectary 0; ovary superior, style ± included and straight or generally exserted and downcurved, stigma peltate, with 5 spreading lobes above a prominent, reflexed collar or generally not peltate, generally with 5 ± erect lobes projecting beyond a delicate, reflexed collar. Fruit: capsule, pendent; valves opening base to tip, margins fibrous. Seed: ± 1000.
± 30 species: generally circumboreal, high mountains of Central America, Sumatra. (Latin: little pear, ± from leaf shape) [Jolles & Wolfe 2012 Syst Bot 37:468–477; Jolles & Wilson 2014 Taxon 63(4):789–800] Pyrola aphylla, Pyrola dentata newly recognized, added as native; Pyrola crypta newly described, added as native.
1. Flowers radial, ± closed; style ± included, straight, < 2 mm, stigma lobes spreading; anthers < 1.5 mm, ± without tube-like constrictions subtending pores (subg. Amelia) ..... P. minor
1' Flowers subradial to bilateral, ± open; style exserted, downcurved, > 4 mm, stigma lobes ± erect; anthers >= 2 mm, with tube-like constrictions subtending pores (subg. Pyrola)
2. Flower bract generally >> pedicel
3. Leaf blades generally vestigial or 0, sessile, ± appressed, ± not green, dull adaxially ..... P. aphylla (2)
3' Leaf blades well developed, petioled, spreading, green (chlorophyll present), ± shiny adaxially ..... P. asarifolia
4. Flower bract 1–1.5 × pedicel; sepals 2–3.5 mm, deltate to lanceolate; leaf round to reniform, entire to ± crenate; anthers 2–3 mm ..... subsp. asarifolia
4' Flower bract generally > 2 × pedicel; sepals 3–5.8 (generally >> 3.5) mm, lanceolate to lance-oblong; leaf ± round to elliptic, generally minutely mucronate-dentate; anthers 2.5–3.5 mm ..... subsp. bracteata
2' Flower bract generally <= pedicel
5. Leaf blades generally vestigial or 0, largest lanceolate to deltate, sessile, ± not green, ± 1 cm ..... P. aphylla (2)
5' Leaf blades generally present, largest round to obovate, oblanceolate, or elliptic, petioled, green, generally > 1.5 cm
6. Leaves glaucous, bluish, erect; petiole ± 1/4–1/2 blade; blades entire to serrate ..... P. dentata
6' Leaves not glaucous, dark green, spreading; petiole ± >= 1/2 blade; blades entire (serrate)
7. Leaf blade without white mottling on veins adaxially, round, 1–2.5 cm, adaxial veins raised ..... P. chlorantha
7' Leaf blade with white mottling on veins adaxially, ovate to obovate to elliptic, 2.5–7 cm; adaxial veins not raised
8. Sepals 2.2–3.4 mm; flower bract generally > 1/2 pedicel; Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range ..... P. crypta
8' Sepals 1.2–2(2.5) mm; flower bract generally ± 1/2 pedicel; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains, Modoc Plateau ..... P. picta
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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