Directory       News       Site Map       Home
         
    Jepson eFlora
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

SIDALCEA CHECKERBLOOM
Annual, perennial herb; with taproot, clustered fleshy roots, caudex, adventitious roots, or occasionally shallow rhizome. Stem: ± decumbent or generally erect, some occasionally stolon-like; erect stem, branches terminating in inflorescence. Leaf: generally fewer above, occasionally ± rosetted; petioles below generally >> petioles above; blades below generally crenate to shallowly lobed, blades above often deeply palmate-lobed or -divided; stipules generally persistent. Inflorescence: head, spike, or raceme, in panicle or not, generally more open in fruit; bracts 2, generally stipule-like, occasionally involucre-like, united at base to ± entirely; bractlets 0(3), generally not in involucel. Flower: flowers generally bisexual, protandrous, occasionally functionally unisexual (occasionally, plants with either bisexual or pistillate flowers in a given sp.); calyx lobes >= tube; petals spreading or erect, purple or rose-pink to white, generally with some pale veins, base generally also paler than tips (occasionally darker), tip ± notched or fringed, petals on pistillate flowers shorter, darker, often <= 10 mm; filament tube generally stellate-puberulent, anthers near top, in generally 2 concentric series, generally pink, ± purple, or white; stigmas linear, on inner side of style branches, conspicuous in pistillate flowers. Fruit: segments generally 5–10, indehiscent, puberulent, glandular, or glabrous, beaked or not, side walls generally ± thin. Seed: 1, generally filling chamber, reniform, glabrous.
± 27 species: western North America: Alaska, Canada, to Mexico. (Greek: combination of Sida, Alcea, 2 other names for mallows) [Andreasen & Baldwin 2003 Amer J Bot 90:436–444; Hill 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:783–791] Some species highly variable, especially in leaves, growth stage; mature plants with fruit minimize considerable problems in identification, as does knowledge of plant base, underground parts; needs study.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1957 Univ Washington Publ Biol 18:1–96; Fryxell 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 25:412–416]
Unabridged note: This treatment differs from that in TJM (1993) in addition of new taxa and in segregation as species of former, primarily inland subspecies of Sidalcea malviflora, now primarily a coastal entity.

Key to Sidalcea

1. Annual (weak perennial herb); generally flower in spring (occasionally later)

2. Lobes of mid-, upper-stem leaves generally dentate (entire), generally wider than linear; stem bristly; fruit segments generally glabrous, occasionally ± pink when fresh; beak 0

3. Upper paired stipules, bracts divided to base into >= 2 linear lobes >= calyx; middle lobe of upper stem leaves entire or with middle tooth >> lateral 2; inflorescence, calyx generally not glandular; inflorescence in fruit congested, axis not visible ..... S. diploscypha

3' Upper paired stipules, bracts simple, linear, undivided (few divided in robust plants), generally < calyx; middle lobe of upper stem leaves with middle tooth ± = lateral 2; inflorescence, calyx generally densely minutely glandular; inflorescence in fruit not congested, axis visible ..... S. keckii

2' Lobes of mid-, upper-stem leaves ± entire, generally linear; stem generally ± glabrous at least below; fruit segment glabrous or sparsely puberulent, ± pink or not when fresh; beak present

4. Outer filaments not fused to tip; fruit segment evenly net-veined on back, deeply pitted especially on top, glabrous to puberulent; calyx generally 8–10 mm ..... S. hartwegii

4' Outer filaments fused ± to tip; fruit segment longitudinally grooved or net-veined on back, generally puberulent (glabrous in Sidalcea calycosa); calyx 4–12 mm

5. Plant generally densely bristly above or stem glabrous in age; bracts linear; fruit segments ± net-veined-pitted, generally puberulent on back; calyx or flower stalk ± densely stellate-puberulent ..... S. hirsuta

5' Plant glabrous or sparsely hairy; bracts wider than linear; fruit segments longitudinally grooved, glabrous on back; calyx or flower stalk sparsely to densely silky-bristly ..... S. calycosa

6. Plant annual, taprooted; bracts 2–6 mm, not silky-hairy, not obscuring calyx; calyx 4–7 mm; petals (9)10–20 mm; Outer North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, n San Francisco Bay Area ..... subsp. calycosa

6' Plant weak perennial herb, rhizomed; bracts 8–12 mm, silky-hairy, ± obscuring calyx; calyx 6–12 mm; petals 20–25 mm; c&s North Coast, n Central Coast ..... subsp. rhizomata

1' Perennial herb; generally flower in late spring, summer

7. Fruit segment beak 0; bractlets (0)1–3; leaves generally all along stem early to late in season, lobed (unlobed)

8. Bractlets generally 0(1–2); petals generally white; leaves generally evenly shallowly lobed; plants often > 8 dm ..... S. malachroides

8' Bractlets 3; petals pale pink to rose-purple; leaves lobed or not; plants generally < 8 dm

9. Inflorescence ± head; bracts subtending lower flowers involucre-like; stipules widest at base, much wider than stem; leaf blades ovate, unlobed; n Sierra Nevada Foothills (Nevada Co.) ..... S. stipularis

9' Inflorescence spike or raceme; bracts subtending lower flowers generally stipule-like; stipules widest above base, occasionally wider than stem; leaf blades ± round or fan-like, lobed or not; North Coast Ranges, n Central Coast, Outer South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges ..... S. hickmanii

10. Lower leaves generally lobed ± to base

11. Bracts (8)10–12 mm, ± = calyx; Outer South Coast Ranges (c San Luis Obispo Co.) ..... subsp. anomala

11' Bracts 5.5–7 mm, < calyx; Inner North Coast Ranges (Napa Co.) ..... subsp. napensis

10' Lower leaves unlobed, or deeply crenate to lobed < 1/4 to base

12. Bracts lanceolate, generally 6–10 mm, 2.5–4 mm wide, ± < calyx; bractlets ± <= calyx; upper leaves unlobed or lobed < 1/4 to base; Outer South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges (Santa Barbara Co.), San Bernardino Mountains ..... subsp. parishii

12' Bracts linear, lance-linear, or oblong, 2–7 mm, 0.5–2 mm wide, < calyx; bractlets < calyx; upper leaves unlobed

13. Plant generally 4–8 dm, ± gray-canescent; calyx densely stellate-puberulent, marginal hairs longest; bractlets 2–7 mm; largest leaves deeply cordate, closely crenate, often > 30 mm wide; inflorescence ± dense — Outer South Coast Ranges ..... subsp. hickmanii

13' Plant generally < 4 dm, ± green, less hairy; calyx moderate- to densely stellate-puberulent, hairs ± equal in length; bractlets 2–5 mm; largest leaves truncate to widely wedge-shaped, coarsely crenate, generally < 25 mm wide, wider in robust plants; inflorescence generally ± open

14. Bracts of upper flowers 1, cupped; leaf blades 0.6–1.2 cm, 0.7–2.1 cm wide; upper stem hairs appressed, generally 0.2–0.5 mm; stem generally < 30 cm; flowers generally < 10, inflorescence not a spike; calyx 4–5.5 mm; High North Coast Ranges (n Lake Co.) ..... subsp. pillsburiensis

14' Bracts of upper flowers generally 2, flat or cupped; leaf blades 1–2.5 cm, 2–4 cm wide; upper stem hairs not appressed, generally 0.5–1.2 mm; stems generally > 30 cm; flowers generally > 10, inflorescence a ± spike in age; calyx 4–7 mm; s North Coast, n Central Coast ..... subsp. viridis

7' Fruit segment beak 1, occasionally minute; bractlets 0; leaves only basal or on lower stem at least early in season (or not), occasionally rosette-like, basal generally not lobed, leaves above generally deeply lobed (shallowly lobed or unlobed)

15. Plant generally (1)1.5–2(2.5) m; rhizomes <= (0.5)1 cm diam, bristly; stem base hollow, bristly ..... S. gigantea

15' Plant generally < or << 1(1.8) m; rhizomes 0 or generally < to << 1 cm diam; stem base solid (hollow), occasionally bristly

16. Inflorescence dense, not 1-sided; calyces densely overlapped in flower, occasionally in fruit

17. Fruit segments rough at least on outer edges and/or back, net-veined-pitted; inflorescence in fruit ± open and/or interrupted; rhizomes or rooting stems occasionally present (see also Sidalcea malviflora subspecies at 37')

18. Stem base decumbent to ascending; larger petals on bisexual flowers 1–2.5 cm, generally white-veined; fruit generally not overlapped; North Coast, Central Coast

19. Stems often freely rooting near base; leaves at mid-stem lobed, bristles coarse; n North Coast ..... S. malviflora subsp. patula

19' Stems generally not rooting near base; leaves at mid-stem unlobed, bristles fine; c&s North Coast, n Central Coast ..... S. malviflora subsp. rostrata (3)

18' Stem erect (decumbent); larger petals in bisexual flowers 0.5–1.5(2.5) cm, white-veined or not; fruit generally overlapped; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Coast, Modoc Plateau

20. Petals white-veined, 1–2.5 cm; stem generally 3–5 dm; leaves unlobed; plant ± densely finely bristly; coastal, c&s North Coast, n Central Coast ..... S. malviflora subsp. rostrata (3)

20' Petals generally not white-veined, 0.5–1.5 cm; stem generally > 4 dm; leaves lobed or not; plant not densely finely bristly; inland, Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Modoc Plateau

21. Inflorescence axis below generally visible between flower clusters; plant with ± elongate caudex; stems generally not clustered; s Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... S. ranunculacea

21' Inflorescence axis below ± visible or not between equally spaced individual flowers; plant with short caudex; stems clustered; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau

22. Calyx ± 6 mm, generally stellate-puberulent and occasionally with few bristles; inflorescence generally 10–30 cm ..... S. oregana subsp. oregana (4)

22' Calyx 5–8 mm, stellate-puberulent and with bristles; inflorescence 3–10 cm ..... S. setosa

17' Fruit segments smooth, generally not net-veined or pitted; inflorescence in fruit generally ± dense, not interrupted; rhizomes or rooting stems present or 0

23. 1° peduncle >> fruit cluster; dense part of inflorescence generally < 5 cm; calyx, generally inflorescence stalk densely stellate-canescent

24. Lower stem < 5 mm diam, bristles ± 2 mm; inflorescence few-flowered, generally 1.5–2.5 cm; 1100–2300 m ..... S. oregana subsp. hydrophila

24' Lower stem generally > 5 mm diam, bristles generally 1–1.5 mm; inflorescence many-flowered, generally 2–5 cm; ± 150 m ..... S. oregana subsp. valida

23' 1° peduncle generally ± <= fruit cluster; dense part of inflorescence generally > 3 cm; calyx, generally inflorescence stalk stellate-puberulent

25. Calyx larger in fruit to generally 8–13 mm; calyx with bristles; n North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges ..... S. oregana subsp. eximia

25' Calyx ± larger in fruit to generally 3.5–7(10) mm; calyx with small stellate hairs, occasionally bristles; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province

26. Bracts generally < youngest flower buds; calyx generally 5–8 mm; fruit, especially lower, widely spaced ..... S. oregana subsp. oregana (4)

26' Bracts generally > youngest flower buds; calyx (3.5)5(7) mm; fruit widely spaced or not ..... S. oregana subsp. spicata

16' Inflorescence ± open, occasionally 1-sided; calyces generally not densely overlapped except in bud

27. Fruit segment generally glabrous, outer edges narrowly winged above; stem erect, glabrous above; inflorescence generally 30–40 cm ..... S. robusta

27' Fruit segment glabrous or puberulent, outer edges not winged; stem erect, decumbent, or ascending, hairy to glabrous above; inflorescence generally < to << 40 cm

28. Fruit segment smooth, not net-veined or pitted, glabrous; inflorescence generally > 15-flowered

29. Basal leaves 0 or deeply crenate or shallowly lobed; stem with > 3 leaves, generally branched, not scapose; inflorescence ± elongated in fruit; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau ..... S. oregana subsp. oregana (4)

29' Basal leaves deeply dissected; stem with 1–3 leaves, generally unbranched, ± scapose; inflorescence much elongated in fruit; San Bernardino Mountains ..... S. pedata

28' Fruit segment generally finely or coarsely net-veined or pitted, glandular-puberulent or glabrous; inflorescence < 15-flowered or not

30. Roots fleshy; rhizome 0, caudex 0; stems generally many; plants of alkaline flats, seeps

31. Leaves generally basal, glaucous, generally deeply 7-lobed, lobes linear; calyx stellate-puberulent; East of Sierra Nevada (Inyo Co.) ..... S. covillei

31' Leaves basal, cauline, not glaucous, crenate to shallowly 5(7)-lobed, lobes wider than linear; calyx stellate-puberulent and with swollen-based bristles; Southwestern California, sw Mojave Desert ..... S. neomexicana

30' Roots not fleshy; rhizome 0 or present, caudex 0 or present; stems many or not; plants generally not of alkaline flats, seeps

32. Flowers generally > 15, inflorescence generally branched; petals generally 5–15 mm; rhizome 0; stems erect ..... S. oregana subsp. oregana (4)

32' Flowers generally < 15, inflorescence generally unbranched; petals (5)10–35 mm; rhizomes present or 0; stems erect or ascending to ± prostrate

33. Plant glaucous; rhizomes 0; inflorescence ± 1-sided

34. Stem generally decumbent-ascending; leaves mostly cauline, generally 5(7)-lobed, lobes entire to shallowly dentate; Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, ..... S. glaucescens

34' Stem generally ascending to erect; leaves mostly basal, generally 7(9)-lobed, lobes generally deeply dentate or ternate; High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada ..... S. multifida

33' Plant ± glaucous or not; rhizomes present or 0; inflorescence 1-sided or not

35. Stem long-prostrate, free-rooting, base with bristly hairs 2–3 mm, stellate hairs 0 (glabrous); leaf hairs simple; fruit segments densely bristly-stellate-puberulent on back, top, and/or beak ..... S. reptans

35' Stem generally erect to ascending, occasionally prostrate to decumbent and rooting, hairs on stem base < 3 mm, simple, stellate, or mixed; leaf hairs stellate or not; fruit segments generally not densely hairy on back, top, and/or beak

36. Leaves generally basal, much reduced above, occasionally plant ± scapose; flowers > 10; inflorescence elongate, generally to 30–40 cm in fruit; fruit generally weakly net-veined-roughened ..... S. sparsifolia

36' Leaves generally cauline (generally basal in Sidalcea asprella subsp. nana, Sidalcea elegans), ± reduced above (or not), plant not scapose; flowers < or > 10; inflorescence elongate or not, generally < 30 cm in fruit; fruit generally strongly net-veined-roughened, -pitted, or honeycombed

37. Calyx generally stellate-puberulent, generally not bristly; inflorescence occasionally 1-sided; plant occasionally ± glaucous; leaves lobed; generally inland, mtns; often serpentine

38. Rhizomes generally present, > 10 cm, generally < 4 mm diam; flowers generally < 10(20); stem occasionally prostrate at base, inflorescence ascending

39. Basal stem hairs ± 0 or simple; stem brittle; Klamath Ranges ..... S. elegans

39' Basal stem hairs stellate; stem not especially brittle; Northwestern California (especially High North Coast Ranges), Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada ..... S. asprella subsp. nana

38' Rhizomes 0 or < 10 cm, generally > 4 mm diam; flowers generally > (8)10; stem, inflorescence generally erect

40. Rhizomes 0; stem generally erect, free-standing, base with bristles (or stellate hairs); leaves generally crenate to lobed, not alike in shape, lobes of upper ± entire; n Inner North Coast Ranges (Shasta, Tehama cos.), n Sacramento Valley ..... S. celata

40' Rhizomes < 10(30) cm; stem often weak, on other pls, base with stellate hairs, without bristles; leaves ± lobed, ± alike in shape, lobes of upper generally toothed; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada ..... S. asprella subsp. asprella

37' Calyx generally both stellate-puberulent and bristly, if bristles 0 some stellate hairs larger than others; inflorescence 1-sided or not; plant not glaucous; leaves lobed or not; generally coastal (to inland in Southwestern California), generally not serpentine ..... S. malviflora subspecies (in part)

41. Lobes of mid-stem leaves deep, ternate with linear segments; stem base generally ± rooting ..... subsp. laciniata

41' Lobes of mid-stem leaves 0 or not ternate with linear segments; stem base rooting or not

42. Stem base hairs generally ± 2 mm, not stellate; fruit segment weakly net-veined; rhizome generally > 10 cm, slender, free-rooting; stem leaves lobed; calyx sparsely stellate-puberulent, bristly; inflorescence generally open; San Bernardino Mountains ..... subsp. dolosa

42' Stem base hairs < 2 mm, stellate and not; fruit segment strongly net-veined-pitted; rhizome < 10 cm, not slender, free-rooting or not; stem leaves lobed or not; calyx generally densely stellate-puberulent or not, bristly or not; inflorescence open or dense; not San Bernardino Mountains

43. Basal leaf blade generally < 2(2.5) cm; upper leaves generally unlobed; stem base, stipules, calyx generally ± purple; flower stalk generally hair-like; coastal, c&s North Coast, n Central Coast ..... subsp. purpurea

43' Basal leaf blade generally > 2 cm; upper leaves lobed or unlobed; stem base, stipules, calyx generally not ± purple; flower stalk stouter then hair-like; coastal or not, including c&s North Coast, n Central Coast, or not

44. Plant stellate-canescent; upper leaves generally deeply 7-lobed; calyx densely stellate-puberulent; flowers generally not dense; petals of bisexual flowers ± 25–35 mm; s Outer South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges ..... subsp. californica

44' Plant generally densely coarsely stellate-hairy or densely finely bristly; upper leaves unlobed to deeply 7–9-lobed; calyx generally sparsely bristly; flowers occasionally dense, less so in age; petals of bisexual flowers often < 20 mm; c&s North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast, n Channel Islands

45. Mid, upper leaves 7–9-lobed; plant not bristly; s North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast, n Channel Islands ..... subsp. malviflora

45' Mid, upper leaves unlobed; plant finely bristly; c&s North Coast (Sonoma, s Mendocino cos.), n Central Coast (Marin, San Mateo cos.) ..... subsp. rostrata (3)

Contact/Feedback

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.