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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Annual, perennial herb; with taproot, clustered fleshy roots, caudex, adventitious roots, or occasionally shallow rhizome.
Stem: ± decumbent or generally erect, some occasionally stolon-like; erect stem, branches terminating in inflorescence.
Leaf: generally fewer above, occasionally ± rosetted; petioles below generally >> petioles above; blades below generally crenate to shallowly lobed, blades above often deeply palmate-lobed or -divided; stipules generally persistent.
Inflorescence: head, spike, or raceme, in panicle or not, generally more open in fruit; bracts 2, generally stipule-like, occasionally involucre-like, united at base to ± entirely; bractlets 0(3), generally not in involucel.
Flower: flowers generally bisexual, protandrous, occasionally functionally unisexual (occasionally, plants with either bisexual or pistillate flowers in a given sp.); calyx lobes >= tube; petals spreading or erect, purple or rose-pink to white, generally with some pale veins, base generally also paler than tips (occasionally darker), tip ± notched or fringed, petals on pistillate flowers shorter, darker, often <= 10 mm; filament tube generally stellate- puberulent, anthers near top, in generally 2 concentric series, generally pink, ± purple, or white; stigmas linear, on inner side of style branches, conspicuous in pistillate flowers.
Fruit: segments generally 5–10, indehiscent, puberulent, glandular, or glabrous, beaked or not, side walls generally ± thin.
Seed: 1, generally filling chamber, reniform, glabrous.
± 27 species: w North America: AK, Can, to Mex. (Greek: combination of Sida, Alcea, 2 other names for mallows) [Andreasen & Baldwin 2003 Amer J Bot 90:436–444; Hill 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:783–791] Some species highly variable, especially in leaves, growth stage; mature plants with fruit minimize considerable problems in identification, as does knowledge of plant base, underground parts; needs study.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1957 Univ Washington Publ Biol 18:1–96; Fryxell 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 25:412–416]
Unabridged note: This treatment differs from that in TJM (1993) in addition of new taxa and in segregation as species of former, primarily inland subspp. of Sidalcea malviflora, now primarily a coastal entity.
1. Annual (weak perennial herb); generally flower in spring (occasionally later)
2. Lobes of mid-, upper-stem leaves generally dentate (entire), generally wider than linear; stem bristly; fruit segments generally glabrous, occasionally ± pink when fresh; beak 0
3. Upper paired stipules, bracts divided to base into >= 2 linear lobes >= calyx; middle lobe of upper stem leaves entire or with middle tooth >> lateral 2; inflorescence, calyx generally not glandular; inflorescence in fruit congested, axis not visible ..... S. diploscypha
3' Upper paired stipules, bracts simple, linear, undivided (few divided in robust plants), generally < calyx; middle lobe of upper stem leaves with middle tooth ± = lateral 2; inflorescence, calyx generally densely minutely glandular; inflorescence in fruit not congested, axis visible ..... S. keckii
2' Lobes of mid-, upper-stem leaves ± entire, generally linear; stem generally ± glabrous at least below; fruit segment glabrous or sparsely puberulent, ± pink or not when fresh; beak present
4. Outer filaments not fused to tip; fruit segment evenly net-veined on back, deeply pitted especially on top, glabrous to puberulent; calyx generally 8–10 mm ..... S. hartwegii
4' Outer filaments fused ± to tip; fruit segment longitudinally grooved or net-veined on back, generally puberulent (glabrous in Sidalcea calycosa); calyx 4–12 mm
5. Plant generally densely bristly above or stem glabrous in age; bracts linear; fruit segments ± net-veined-pitted, generally puberulent on back; calyx or flower stalk ± densely stellate-puberulent ..... S. hirsuta
5' Plant glabrous or sparsely hairy; bracts wider than linear; fruit segments longitudinally grooved, glabrous on back; calyx or flower stalk sparsely to densely silky-bristly ..... S. calycosa
6. Plant annual, taprooted; bracts 2–6 mm, not silky-hairy, not obscuring calyx; calyx 4–7 mm; petals (9)10–20 mm; NCoRO, CaRF, SNF, n SnFrB ..... subsp. calycosa
6' Plant weak perennial herb, rhizomed; bracts 8–12 mm, silky-hairy, ± obscuring calyx; calyx 6–12 mm; petals 20–25 mm; c&s NCo, n CCo ..... subsp. rhizomata
1' Perennial; generally flower in late spring, summer
7. Fr segment beak 0; bractlets (0)1–3; leaves generally all along stem early to late in season, lobed (unlobed)
8. Bractlets generally 0(1–2); petals generally white; leaves generally evenly shallowly lobed; plants often > 8 dm ..... S. malachroides
8' Bractlets 3; petals pale pink to rose-purple; leaves lobed or not; plants generally < 8 dm
9. Infl ± head; bracts subtending lower flowers involucre-like; stipules widest at base, much wider than stem; leaf blades ovate, unlobed; n SNF (Nevada Co.) ..... S. stipularis
9' Infl spike or raceme; bracts subtending lower flowers generally stipule-like; stipules widest above base, occasionally wider than stem; leaf blades ± round or fan-like, lobed or not; NCoR, n CCo, SCoRO, WTR ..... S. hickmanii
10. Lower leaves generally lobed ± to base
11. Bracts (8)10–12 mm, ± = calyx; SCoRO (c San Luis Obispo Co.) ..... subsp. anomala
11' Bracts 5.5–7 mm, < calyx; NCoRI (Napa Co.) ..... subsp. napensis
10' Lower leaves unlobed, or deeply crenate to lobed < 1/4 to base
12. Bracts lanceolate, generally 6–10 mm, 2.5–4 mm wide, ± < calyx; bractlets ± <= calyx; upper leaves unlobed or lobed < 1/4 to base; SCoRO, WTR (Santa Barbara Co.), SnBr ..... subsp. parishii
12' Bracts linear, lance-linear, or oblong, 2–7 mm, 0.5–2 mm wide, < calyx; bractlets < calyx; upper leaves unlobed
13. Plant generally 4–8 dm, ± gray-canescent; calyx densely stellate-puberulent, marginal hairs longest; bractlets 2–7 mm; largest leaves deeply cordate, closely crenate, often > 30 mm wide; inflorescence ± dense — SCoRO ..... subsp. hickmanii
13' Plant generally < 4 dm, ± green, less hairy; calyx moderate- to densely stellate-puberulent, hairs ± equal in length; bractlets 2–5 mm; largest leaves truncate to widely wedge-shaped, coarsely crenate, generally < 25 mm wide, wider in robust plants; inflorescence generally ± open
14. Bracts of upper flowers 1, cupped; leaf blades 0.6–1.2 cm, 0.7–2.1 cm wide; upper stem hairs appressed, generally 0.2–0.5 mm; stem generally < 30 cm; flowers generally < 10, inflorescence not a spike; calyx 4–5.5 mm; NCoRH (n Lake Co.) ..... subsp. pillsburiensis
14' Bracts of upper flowers generally 2, flat or cupped; leaf blades 1–2.5 cm, 2–4 cm wide; upper stem hairs not appressed, generally 0.5–1.2 mm; stems generally > 30 cm; flowers generally > 10, inflorescence a ± spike in age; calyx 4–7 mm; s NCo, n CCo ..... subsp. viridis
7' Fr segment beak 1, occasionally minute; bractlets 0; leaves only basal or on lower stem at least early in season (or not), occasionally rosette-like, basal generally not lobed, leaves above generally deeply lobed (shallowly lobed or unlobed)
15. Plant generally (1)1.5–2(2.5) m; rhizomes <= (0.5)1 cm diam, bristly; stem base hollow, bristly ..... S. gigantea
15' Plant generally < or << 1(1.8) m; rhizomes 0 or generally < to << 1 cm diam; stem base solid (hollow), occasionally bristly
16. Infl dense, not 1-sided; calyces densely overlapped in flower, occasionally in fruit
17. Fr segments rough at least on outer edges and/or back, net-veined-pitted; inflorescence in fruit ± open and/or interrupted; rhizomes or rooting stems occasionally present (see also Sidalcea malviflora subspp. at 37')
18. St base decumbent to ascending; larger petals on bisexual flowers 1–2.5 cm, generally white-veined; fruit generally not overlapped; NCo, CCo
19. Sts often freely rooting near base; leaves at mid-stem lobed, bristles coarse; n NCo ..... S. malviflora subsp. patula
19' Sts generally not rooting near base; leaves at mid-stem unlobed, bristles fine; c&s NCo, n CCo ..... S. malviflora subsp. rostrata (3)
18' St erect (decumbent); larger petals in bisexual flowers 0.5–1.5(2.5) cm, white-veined or not; fruit generally overlapped; NW, CaR, SNF, CCo, MP
20. Petals white-veined, 1–2.5 cm; stem generally 3–5 dm; leaves unlobed; plant ± densely finely bristly; coastal, c&s NCo, n CCo ..... S. malviflora subsp. rostrata (3)
20' Petals generally not white-veined, 0.5–1.5 cm; stem generally > 4 dm; leaves lobed or not; plant not densely finely bristly; inland, NW, CaR, SNF, MP
21. Infl axis below generally visible between flower clusters; plant with ± elongate caudex; stems generally not clustered; s SNF ..... S. ranunculacea
21' Infl axis below ± visible or not between equally spaced individual flowers; plant with short caudex; stems clustered; NW, CaR, MP
22. Calyx ± 6 mm, generally stellate-puberulent and occasionally with few bristles; inflorescence generally 10–30 cm ..... S. oregana subsp. oregana (4)
22' Calyx 5–8 mm, stellate-puberulent and with bristles; inflorescence 3–10 cm ..... S. setosa
17' Fr segments smooth, generally not net-veined or pitted; inflorescence in fruit generally ± dense, not interrupted; rhizomes or rooting stems present or 0
23. 1° peduncle >> fruit cluster; dense part of inflorescence generally < 5 cm; calyx, generally inflorescence stalk densely stellate-canescent
24. Lower stem < 5 mm diam, bristles ± 2 mm; inflorescence few-flowered, generally 1.5–2.5 cm; 1100–2300 m ..... S. oregana subsp. hydrophila
24' Lower stem generally > 5 mm diam, bristles generally 1–1.5 mm; inflorescence many-flowered, generally 2–5 cm; ± 150 m ..... S. oregana subsp. valida
23' 1° peduncle generally ± <= fruit cluster; dense part of inflorescence generally > 3 cm; calyx, generally inflorescence stalk stellate-puberulent
25. Calyx larger in fruit to generally 8–13 mm; calyx with bristles; n NCo, NCoRO ..... S. oregana subsp. eximia
25' Calyx ± larger in fruit to generally 3.5–7(10) mm; calyx with small stellate hairs, occasionally bristles; NW, CaR, n&c SNH, GB
26. Bracts generally < youngest flower buds; calyx generally 5–8 mm; fruit, especially lower, widely spaced ..... S. oregana subsp. oregana (4)
26' Bracts generally > youngest flower buds; calyx (3.5)5(7) mm; fruit widely spaced or not ..... S. oregana subsp. spicata
16' Infl ± open, occasionally 1-sided; calyces generally not densely overlapped except in bud
27. Fr segment generally glabrous, outer edges narrowly winged above; stem erect, glabrous above; inflorescence generally 30–40 cm ..... S. robusta
27' Fr segment glabrous or puberulent, outer edges not winged; stem erect, decumbent, or ascending, hairy to glabrous above; inflorescence generally < to << 40 cm
28. Fr segment smooth, not net-veined or pitted, glabrous; inflorescence generally > 15-flowered
29. Basal leaves 0 or deeply crenate or shallowly lobed; stem with > 3 leaves, generally branched, not scapose; inflorescence ± elongated in fruit; NW, CaR, MP ..... S. oregana subsp. oregana (4)
29' Basal leaves deeply dissected; stem with 1–3 leaves, generally unbranched, ± scapose; inflorescence much elongated in fruit; SnBr ..... S. pedata
28' Fr segment generally finely or coarsely net-veined or pitted, glandular-puberulent or glabrous; inflorescence < 15-flowered or not
30. Roots fleshy; rhizome 0, caudex 0; stems generally many; plants of alkaline flats, seeps
31. Lvs generally basal, glaucous, generally deeply 7-lobed, lobes linear; calyx stellate-puberulent; SNE (Inyo Co.) ..... S. covillei
31' Lvs basal, cauline, not glaucous, crenate to shallowly 5(7)-lobed, lobes wider than linear; calyx stellate-puberulent and with swollen-based bristles; SW, sw DMoj ..... S. neomexicana
30' Roots not fleshy; rhizome 0 or present, caudex 0 or present; stems many or not; plants generally not of alkaline flats, seeps
32. Fls generally > 15, inflorescence generally branched; petals generally 5–15 mm; rhizome 0; stems erect ..... S. oregana subsp. oregana (4)
32' Fls generally < 15, inflorescence generally unbranched; petals (5)10–35 mm; rhizomes present or 0; stems erect or ascending to ± prostrate
33. Plant glaucous; rhizomes 0; inflorescence ± 1-sided
34. St generally decumbent-ascending; leaves mostly cauline, generally 5(7)-lobed, lobes entire to shallowly dentate; KR, CaRH, n&c SNH, ..... S. glaucescens
34' St generally ascending to erect; leaves mostly basal, generally 7(9)-lobed, lobes generally deeply dentate or ternate; SNH, SNE ..... S. multifida
33' Plant ± glaucous or not; rhizomes present or 0; inflorescence 1-sided or not
35. St long-prostrate, free-rooting, base with bristly hairs 2–3 mm, stellate hairs 0 (glabrous); leaf hairs simple; fruit segments densely bristly-stellate-puberulent on back, top, and/or beak ..... S. reptans
35' St generally erect to ascending, occasionally prostrate to decumbent and rooting, hairs on stem base < 3 mm, simple, stellate, or mixed; leaf hairs stellate or not; fruit segments generally not densely hairy on back, top, and/or beak
36. Lvs generally basal, much reduced above, occasionally plant ± scapose; flowers > 10; inflorescence elongate, generally to 30–40 cm in fruit; fruit generally weakly net-veined-roughened ..... S. sparsifolia
36' Lvs generally cauline (generally basal in Sidalcea asprella subsp. nana, Sidalcea elegans), ± reduced above (or not), plant not scapose; flowers < or > 10; inflorescence elongate or not, generally < 30 cm in fruit; fruit generally strongly net-veined-roughened, -pitted, or honeycombed
37. Calyx generally stellate-puberulent, generally not bristly; inflorescence occasionally 1-sided; plant occasionally ± glaucous; leaves lobed; generally inland, mtns; often serpentine
38. Rhizomes generally present, > 10 cm, generally < 4 mm diam; flowers generally < 10(20); stem occasionally prostrate at base, inflorescence ascending
39. Basal stem hairs ± 0 or simple; stem brittle; KR ..... S. elegans
39' Basal stem hairs stellate; stem not especially brittle; NW (especially NCoRH), CaR, n SNH ..... S. asprella subsp. nana
38' Rhizomes 0 or < 10 cm, generally > 4 mm diam; flowers generally > (8)10; stem, inflorescence generally erect
40. Rhizomes 0; stem generally erect, free-standing, base with bristles (or stellate hairs); leaves generally crenate to lobed, not alike in shape, lobes of upper ± entire; n NCoRI (Shasta, Tehama cos.), n ScV ..... S. celata
40' Rhizomes < 10(30) cm; stem often weak, on other plants, base with stellate hairs, without bristles; leaves ± lobed, ± alike in shape, lobes of upper generally toothed; NW, CaR, n&c SNH ..... S. asprella subsp. asprella
37' Calyx generally both stellate-puberulent and bristly, if bristles 0 some stellate hairs larger than others; inflorescence 1-sided or not; plant not glaucous; leaves lobed or not; generally coastal (to inland in SW), generally not serpentine ..... S. malviflora subspp. (in part)
41. Lobes of mid-stem leaves deep, ternate with linear segments; stem base generally ± rooting ..... subsp. laciniata
41' Lobes of mid-stem leaves 0 or not ternate with linear segments; stem base rooting or not
42. St base hairs generally ± 2 mm, not stellate; fruit segment weakly net-veined; rhizome generally > 10 cm, slender, free-rooting; stem leaves lobed; calyx sparsely stellate-puberulent, bristly; inflorescence generally open; SnBr ..... subsp. dolosa
42' St base hairs < 2 mm, stellate and not; fruit segment strongly net-veined-pitted; rhizome < 10 cm, not slender, free-rooting or not; stem leaves lobed or not; calyx generally densely stellate-puberulent or not, bristly or not; inflorescence open or dense; not SnBr
43. Basal leaf blade generally < 2(2.5) cm; upper leaves generally unlobed; stem base, stipules, calyx generally ± purple; flower stalk generally hair-like; coastal, c&s NCo, n CCo ..... subsp. purpurea
43' Basal leaf blade generally > 2 cm; upper leaves lobed or unlobed; stem base, stipules, calyx generally not ± purple; flower stalk stouter then hair-like; coastal or not, including c&s NCo, n CCo, or not
44. Plant stellate-canescent; upper leaves generally deeply 7-lobed; calyx densely stellate-puberulent; flowers generally not dense; petals of bisexual flowers ± 25–35 mm; s SCoRO, WTR ..... subsp. californica
44' Plant generally densely coarsely stellate-hairy or densely finely bristly; upper leaves unlobed to deeply 7–9-lobed; calyx generally sparsely bristly; flowers occasionally dense, less so in age; petals of bisexual flowers often < 20 mm; c&s NCo, NCoRO, CCo, SnFrB, SCo, n ChI
45. Mid, upper leaves 7–9-lobed; plant not bristly; s NCo, NCoRO, CCo, SnFrB, SCo, n ChI ..... subsp. malviflora
45' Mid, upper leaves unlobed; plant finely bristly; c&s NCo (Sonoma, s Mendocino cos.), n CCo (Marin, San Mateo cos.) ..... subsp. rostrata (3)
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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