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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Dale W. McNeal & Bryan D. Ness

Rhizome short, thick, spreading to erect. Stem: erect, >=1 per rhizome. Leaf: 3, in 1 whorl subtending flower, sessile or subsessile, ± ovate. Inflorescence: flowers 1 per stem, erect to nodding, stalked or sessile. Flower: bisexual; sepals 3, free, persistent, ± green; petals 3, free, withering, white, ± pink, ± yellow, or purple; stamens 6; ovary chambers 3, styles 3. Fruit: capsule, ± berry-like. Seed: many, ovoid.
± 30–40 species: North America, Asia. (Latin: 3, from leaves) [Farmer 2006 Aliso 22:579–592; Freeman 1975 Brittonia 27:1–62] Trillium rivale moved to Pseudotrillium.

Key to Trillium

1. Flower stalked ..... T. ovatum

2. Petals 5–23 mm (often < 15 mm), 1.8–5.5 mm wide; flower ± nodding; 1200–2000 m; c Klamath Ranges (especially Marble Mtns, Siskiyou Co.) ..... subsp. oettingeri

2' Petals 1.5–7 cm, 5–45 mm wide; flower generally ± erect; 10–1600 m; Northwestern California, Central Western California ..... subsp. ovatum

1' Flower sessile

3. Stamens < 1.25 × pistil; flower odor generally musty or fetid; w Klamath Ranges, Sierra Nevada (except Tehachapi Mountain Area), s Central Coast, Outer South Coast Ranges ..... T. angustipetalum

3' Stamens ± 2 × pistil; flower odor generally sweet rose-like or ± spicy; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area

4. Ovary, tissue between anther sacs ± green (ovary ± purple); petals white to ± pink, base occasionally ± purple; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area ..... T. albidum

4' Ovary, tissue between anther sacs purple; petals yellow to pink to dark purple, occasionally white; Klamath Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area ..... T. chloropetalum


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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