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Key to families | Table of families and genera
This text currently parallels The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition that is now available at the University of California Press.
Text appearing in blue on this page will not appear in the printed book; it will be displayed only on the Web. Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.
Plant from bulb-like, scaly rhizomes (called bulbs here for brevity), generally not clonal, ± glabrous; bulb scale segments 2–many, if segmented.
Leaf: > 12, ± whorled (often some alternate), sessile, spreading with drooping tips to ascending, generally ± elliptic; veins generally 3; stipule 0.
Inflorescence: flowers axillary, 1–40+; bracts generally 2 per flower.
Flower: generally radial, generally bell- or funnel-shaped; perianth parts 6 in 2 petal-like whorls, ± lanceolate, base narrowed, generally red-purple-spotted adaxially; stamens 6, anthers attached at middle (measures are after dehiscence); style 1, stigma 3-lobed.
Fruit: capsule, erect, generally ± smooth, loculicidal.
Seed: many, flat, in 6 stacks.
± 100 species: n temperate, tropical mountains of eastern Asia. (Greek: lily) Variable, hybridization common. Many species declining from habitat destruction, collecting; few thrive in gardens. Generally flowers May–Aug.
Unabridged references: [Skinner 1988 Ph.D. Dissertation Harvard Univ]
1. Fl nodding (between pendent and spreading) to erect; perianth parts recurved but not reflexed (except Lilium maritimum)
2. Perianth ± white, often aging pink, lavender, or purple; flowers nodding to erect
3. Perianth parts 4.2–6.6 cm; flower ascending to erect; NW, SnFrB ..... L. rubescens
3' Perianth parts generally 6.2–11.3 cm; flower nodding to ascending; KR, CaR, SN ..... L. washingtonianum
4. Perianth aging deep pink or lavender; perianth generally 6.2–9.5 cm; KR ..... subsp. purpurascens
4' Perianth aging ± white (light pink); perianth 7.9–11.3 cm; CaR, SN ..... subsp. washingtonianum
2' Perianth yellow to red or pink; flowers nodding to ascending
5. Perianth bright yellow, parts 7.7–10.7 cm; TR, PR ..... L. parryi
5' Perianth ± red, orange, or pink (pale yellow), parts <= 5 cm; s NCo, KR, n&c SNH, n CCo
6. Lf 1.8–7 cm, generally glaucous, margins generally wavy; dry places; KR ..... L. bolanderi
6' Lf 3–18 cm, not obviously glaucous, margins generally not wavy; ± wet or seasonally inundated places; s NCo, n&c SNH, n CCo
7. Perianth red or red-orange abaxially, adaxially (except base green), tips reflexed or rolled; flower nodding (spreading); fruit 2.4–4.1 cm; s NCo, n CCo ..... L. maritimum
7' Perianth light orange to red (± pink) on distal 40%, lighter near base, sometimes uniformly light orange (yellow), abaxially paler, tips ± recurved; flower nodding to ascending; fruit 1.5–2.7 cm; n&c SNH ..... L. parvum
1' Fl pendent (sometimes some nodding); perianth parts reflexed
8. Perianth pink to white, generally aging pink, midribs yellow — KR, n NCoRO ..... L. kelloggii
8' Perianth yellow to red
9. Plant of ± dry places; perianth yellow or orange; bulb erect to ascending
10. Pistil 2.4–3.7 cm; perianth parts 3.4–7.1 cm; anthers 5–13 mm; nw NW ..... L. columbianum
10' Pistil 4.5–7.1 cm; perianth parts generally 5.6–9.5 cm; anthers 11–19 mm; s CaRH, n SNH, s CW, SW ..... L. humboldtii
11. Perianth orange, red spots unmargined; s CaRH, SNH ..... subsp. humboldtii
11' Perianth yellow or light orange, red spots near tip margined with lighter red; s CW, SW ..... subsp. ocellatum
9' Plant of ± moist places; perianth yellow to ± red; bulb spreading
12. Perianth ± uniformly yellow, orange, or yellow-orange (green at base)
13. Fl ± fragrant; anthers 3–6 mm, magenta or dull red; pistil 2.5–3.5 cm; fruit 1.5–3 cm; not clonal; c&s SNH ..... L. kelleyanum
13' Fl not fragrant; anthers 5–13 mm, pale yellow; pistil 3–4.3 cm; fruit 2.3–4.2 cm; ± clonal; e KR ..... L. pardalinum subsp. wigginsii
12' Perianth ± 2-toned, with green, yellow, or orange centers, darker orange or red tips
14. Perianth red to maroon (orange), center green to yellow, abaxially green on basal 40–50%, parts 4.3–8.1 cm; filaments ± parallel; rhizome unbranched; n NCo ..... L. occidentale
14' Perianth yellow to orange, tips redder, abaxially green only on basal ± 20%, parts 3.4–10.4 cm; filaments not parallel; rhizome often branched; CA-FP ..... L. pardalinum (most)
15. Perianth parts 5.9–10.4 cm; generally in large clones; anthers 11–22 mm, leaves generally ± elliptic; CA-FP ..... subsp. pardalinum
15' Perianth parts 3.4–8.3 cm; generally in small clones; anthers 5–18 mm, leaves generally ± elliptic to ± linear; KR, s NCoRO, CaR, n SNH
16. Lf ± linear, length 7–34 × width; w KR ..... subsp. vollmeri
16' Lf ± elliptic, length 3–17 × width; e KR and elsewhere
17. Pollen red- or brown-orange; anthers magenta; s NCoRO ..... subsp. pitkinense
17' Pollen generally yellow to bright orange (red-orange); anthers orange to magenta; KR, CaR, n SNH ..... subsp. shastense
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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