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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Mark W. Skinner

Plant from bulb-like, scaly rhizomes (called bulbs here for brevity), generally not clonal, ± glabrous; bulb scale segments 2–many, if segmented. Stem: erect. Leaf: > 12, ± whorled (often some alternate), sessile, spreading with drooping tips to ascending, generally ± elliptic; veins generally 3; stipule 0. Inflorescence: flowers axillary, 1–40+; bracts generally 2 per flower. Flower: generally radial, generally bell- or funnel-shaped; perianth parts 6 in 2 petal-like whorls, ± lanceolate, base narrowed, generally red-purple-spotted adaxially; stamens 6, generally exceeding to much exceeding perianth, anthers attached at middle (measures are after dehiscence); style 1, stigma 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, erect, generally ± smooth, loculicidal. Seed: many, flat, in 6 stacks.
± 100 species: northern temperate, tropical mountains of eastern Asia. (Greek: lily) Variable, hybridization common. Many species declining from habitat destruction, collecting; few thrive in gardens. Generally flowers May–Aug.
Unabridged references: [Skinner 1988 Ph.D. Dissertation Harvard Univ]

Key to Lilium

1. Flower nodding (between pendent and spreading) to erect; perianth parts recurved but not reflexed (except Lilium maritimum)

2. Perianth ± white, often aging pink, lavender, or purple; flowers nodding to erect

3. Perianth parts 4.2–6.6 cm; flower ascending to erect; Northwestern California, San Francisco Bay Area ..... L. rubescens

3' Perianth parts generally 6.2–11.3 cm; flower nodding to ascending; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada ..... L. washingtonianum

4. Perianth aging deep pink or lavender; perianth generally 6.2–9.5 cm; Klamath Ranges ..... subsp. purpurascens

4' Perianth aging ± white (light pink); perianth 7.9–11.3 cm; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada ..... subsp. washingtonianum

2' Perianth yellow to red or pink; flowers nodding to ascending

5. Perianth bright yellow, parts 7.7–10.7 cm; Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges ..... L. parryi

5' Perianth ± red, orange, or pink (pale yellow), parts <= 5 cm; s North Coast, Klamath Ranges, n&c High Sierra Nevada, n Central Coast

6. Leaf 1.8–7 cm, generally glaucous, margins generally wavy; dry places; Klamath Ranges ..... L. bolanderi

6' Leaf 3–18 cm, not obviously glaucous, margins generally not wavy; ± wet or seasonally inundated places; s North Coast, n&c High Sierra Nevada, n Central Coast

7. Perianth red or red-orange abaxially, adaxially (except base green), tips reflexed or rolled; flower nodding (spreading); fruit 2.4–4.1 cm; s North Coast, n Central Coast ..... L. maritimum

7' Perianth light orange to red (± pink) on distal 40%, lighter near base, sometimes uniformly light orange (yellow), abaxially paler, tips ± recurved; flower nodding to ascending; fruit 1.5–2.7 cm; n&c High Sierra Nevada ..... L. parvum

1' Flower pendent (sometimes some nodding); perianth parts reflexed

8. Perianth pink to white, generally aging pink, midribs yellow — Klamath Ranges, n Outer North Coast Ranges ..... L. kelloggii

8' Perianth yellow to red

9. Plant of ± dry places; perianth yellow or orange; bulb erect to ascending

10. Pistil 2.4–3.7 cm; perianth parts 3.4–7.1 cm; anthers 5–13 mm; nw Northwestern California ..... L. columbianum

10' Pistil 4.5–7.1 cm; perianth parts generally 5.6–9.5 cm; anthers 11–19 mm; s High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, s Central Western California, Southwestern California ..... L. humboldtii

11. Perianth orange, red spots unmargined; s High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada ..... subsp. humboldtii

11' Perianth yellow or light orange, red spots near tip margined with lighter red; s Central Western California, Southwestern California ..... subsp. ocellatum

9' Plant of ± moist places; perianth yellow to ± red; bulb spreading

12. Perianth ± uniformly yellow, orange, or yellow-orange (green at base)

13. Flower ± fragrant; anthers 3–6 mm, magenta or dull red; pistil 2.5–3.5 cm; fruit 1.5–3 cm; not clonal; c&s High Sierra Nevada ..... L. kelleyanum

13' Flower not fragrant; anthers 5–13 mm, pale yellow; pistil 3–4.3 cm; fruit 2.3–4.2 cm; ± clonal; e Klamath Ranges ..... L. pardalinum subsp. wigginsii

12' Perianth ± 2-toned, with green, yellow, or orange centers, darker orange or red tips

14. Perianth red to maroon (orange), center green to yellow, abaxially green on basal 40–50%, parts 4.3–8.1 cm; filaments ± parallel; rhizome unbranched; n North Coast ..... L. occidentale

14' Perianth yellow to orange, tips redder, abaxially green only on basal ± 20%, parts 3.4–10.4 cm; filaments not parallel; rhizome often branched; California Floristic Province ..... L. pardalinum (most)

15. Perianth parts 5.9–10.4 cm; generally in large clones; anthers 11–22 mm, leaves generally ± elliptic; California Floristic Province ..... subsp. pardalinum

15' Perianth parts 3.4–8.3 cm; generally in small clones; anthers 5–18 mm, leaves generally ± elliptic to ± linear; Klamath Ranges, s Outer North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada

16. Leaf ± linear, length 7–34 × width; w Klamath Ranges ..... subsp. vollmeri

16' Leaf ± elliptic, length 3–17 × width; e Klamath Ranges and elsewhere

17. Pollen red- or brown-orange; anthers magenta; s Outer North Coast Ranges ..... subsp. pitkinense

17' Pollen generally yellow to bright orange (red-orange); anthers orange to magenta; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada ..... subsp. shastense


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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