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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

FRITILLARIA FRITILLARY

Dale W. McNeal & Bryan D. Ness


Bulb with 1–several large fleshy scales, 0–many small scales. Stem: erect, simple (0 in non-flowering plants). Leaf: cauline, alternate, subopposite, or whorled below, sessile, linear to ± ovate (1 bulb-leaf in non-flowering plants). Inflorescence: raceme; bracts leaf-like. Flower: generally nodding, bell- or cup-shaped; perianth parts 6 in 2 whorls, each part with distinct glandular area in lower 1/2; stamens 6, included, attached at perianth base, anthers attached ± near middle; ovary ± sessile, style 1, ± entire or 3-branched. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal, thin-walled, ± rounded, 6-angled, or winged, chambers 3. Seed: many, 2 rows per chamber, flat, ± brown.
± 100 species: northern temperate. (Latin: dicebox, from fruit shape) Bulbs of some eaten by Native Americans. {hort link}
Unabridged references: [Turrill & Sealy 1980 Hooker's Icones Plantarum 34:1–275]

Key to Fritillaria

1. Style entire or with lobes < 1.5 mm

2. Leaves in 1–3 whorls of 4–8 below, those subtending flowers alternate ..... F. brandegeei

2' Leaves alternate to subopposite

3. Perianth 0.8–2.2 cm, yellow to orange; ne California ..... F. pudica

3' Perianth 2–3.5 cm, white to pink or purple; not ne California

4. Flowers nodding, fragrant, bell-shaped, perianth parts white to pink, oblanceolate, tips acute to short-tapered, spreading to recurved; s Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... F. striata

4' Flowers spreading to ± erect, nodding in age, not notably fragrant, not bell-shaped, perianth parts pink-purple, obovate, tips rounded to acute, not recurved; Inner North Coast Ranges, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, edges of Sacramento Valley ..... F. pluriflora

1' Style with branches > 1.5 mm

5. Perianth scarlet to ± purple, generally mottled yellow and/or purple; tips strongly recurved or spreading

6. Perianth bell-shaped, tips spreading, nectary 1/2 perianth ..... F. gentneri

6' Perianth tubular, tips generally strongly recurved, nectary 1/5–1/4 perianth ..... F. recurva

5' Perianth not both scarlet to ± purple and mottled, tips generally not recurved (generally recurved or flared in Fritillaria eastwoodiae)

7. Leaves > 10 or in whorls of 2–8 on lower stem, not sickle-shaped

8. Flowers spreading to ± erect; upper leaves ± 1/3–1/2 lowest leaf; leaves often >= inflorescence ..... F. pinetorum (2)

8' Flowers generally nodding (± spreading); upper leaves generally ± = lowest leaf; leaves generally < inflorescence

9. Perianth purple-brown, mottled yellow or white; leaves 2–3 per node; 1000–3200 m, especially inland mtns ..... F. atropurpurea (2)

9' Perianth dark purple, green-white, green-yellow, or red to ± black; leaves generally >= 3 per node; < 1800 m, especially coastal mtns (notable exceptions including Fritillaria micrantha, Fritillaria eastwoodiae)

10. Perianth dull green-yellow, dark-spotted; nectary ± diamond-shaped to ovate ..... F. ojaiensis

10' Perianth green-white, pale green or ± green or yellow to red or dark purple to ± black, mottled (especially Fritillaria affinis); nectary lanceolate or narrower

11. Perianth pale green to ± black (dark purple), not mottled; nectary ± 1/2 perianth; small bulb scales 0–4; Outer South Coast Ranges(?), Inner South Coast Ranges (Monterey, San Benito, San Luis Obispo cos.) ..... F. viridea

11' Perianth green-white or -yellow to red or ± purple, mottled or not; nectary < 1/2 perianth (1/2–2/3 in Fritillaria affinis); small bulb scales generally >= 10 (< 10 in Fritillaria affinis); Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California

12. Perianth generally > 2 cm, generally clearly yellow- or purple-mottled, margins wavy — Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California (except Inner South Coast Ranges) ..... F. affinis

12' Perianth generally < 2 cm, not (or faintly) mottled, margins not wavy

13. Style branches not or ± recurved; perianth ± green to yellow to red, tips generally recurved or flared; nectary green, gold, or yellow; Cascade Range (Shasta, Tehama, Butte cos.) ..... F. eastwoodiae

13' Style branches recurved; perianth ± purple to green-white, tips not recurved or flared; nectary green-white, dotted purple; Sierra Nevada ..... F. micrantha

7' Leaves <= 10 or alternate (crowded), occasionally sickle-shaped

14. Perianth clearly mottled (white with purple spots or lines and pink shading in Fritillaria purdyi); small bulb scales generally > 10 (0–3 in Fritillaria purdyi)

15. Leaves sickle-shaped; flowers ± erect; San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges (San Benito Co.) ..... F. falcata

15' Leaves generally not sickle-shaped; flowers nodding or spreading (spreading to ± erect in Fritillaria pinetorum); not San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges (San Benito Co.)

16. Leaves 2–10, ovate, sickle-shaped or not; perianth white, spotted or lined purple; small bulb scales 0–3 ..... F. purdyi

16' Leaves generally > 4, not sickle-shaped, perianth purple-brown, mottled yellow or white; small bulb scales 45–50

17. Flowers nodding; upper leaves ± <= lowest cauline leaf; cauline leaves generally < inflorescence; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains ..... F. atropurpurea (2)

17' Flowers spreading to ± erect; upper leaves ± 1/3–1/2 lowest cauline leaf; cauline leaves often >= inflorescence; c High Sierra Nevada (Mono, Inyo cos.), Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges ..... F. pinetorum (2)

14' Perianth not clearly mottled; small bulb scales < 10

18. Leaves 2–4, sickle-shaped ..... F. glauca

18' Leaves generally > 4, not sickle-shaped

19. Nectary an obscure narow band 1/2–2/3 perianth; perianth white, striped green ..... F. liliacea

19' Nectary a prominent narrow band 2/3 to = perianth; perianth brown, purple-brown, or green-purple at least adaxially

20. Perianth green-white or yellow abaxially, purple-brown adaxially; flower ill-scented ..... F. agrestis

20' Perianth dark brown, green-purple or yellow-green; flower ill-scented or not ..... F. biflora

21. Leaves narrowly ovate to oblong; flower not ill-scented ..... var. biflora

21' Leaves linear to narrowly lanceolate; flower ill-scented ..... var. ineziana

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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