Jepson eFlora
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Key to Fritillaria

View taxon page for Fritillaria

1. Style entire or with lobes < 1.5 mm

2. Leaves in 1–3 whorls of 4–8 below, those subtending flowers alternate ..... F. brandegeei

2' Leaves alternate to subopposite

3. Perianth 0.8–2.2 cm, yellow to orange; ne California ..... F. pudica

3' Perianth 2–3.5 cm, white to pink or purple; not ne California

4. Flowers nodding, fragrant, bell-shaped, perianth parts white to pink, oblanceolate, tips acute to short-tapered, spreading to recurved; s Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... F. striata

4' Flowers spreading to ± erect, nodding in age, not notably fragrant, not bell-shaped, perianth parts pink-purple, obovate, tips rounded to acute, not recurved; Inner North Coast Ranges, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, edges of Sacramento Valley ..... F. pluriflora

1' Style with branches > 1.5 mm

5. Perianth scarlet to ± purple, generally mottled yellow and/or purple; tips strongly recurved or spreading

6. Perianth bell-shaped, tips spreading, nectary 1/2 perianth ..... F. gentneri

6' Perianth tubular, tips generally strongly recurved, nectary 1/5–1/4 perianth ..... F. recurva

5' Perianth not both scarlet to ± purple and mottled, tips generally not recurved (generally recurved or flared in Fritillaria eastwoodiae)

7. Leaves > 10 or in whorls of 2–8 on lower stem, not sickle-shaped

8. Flowers spreading to ± erect; upper leaves ± 1/3–1/2 lowest leaf; leaves often >= inflorescence ..... F. pinetorum (2)

8' Flowers generally nodding (± spreading); upper leaves generally ± = lowest leaf; leaves generally < inflorescence

9. Perianth purple-brown, mottled yellow or white; leaves 2–3 per node; 1000–3200 m, especially inland mtns ..... F. atropurpurea (2)

9' Perianth dark purple, green-white, green-yellow, or red to ± black; leaves generally >= 3 per node; < 1800 m, especially coastal mtns (notable exceptions including Fritillaria micrantha, Fritillaria eastwoodiae)

10. Perianth dull green-yellow, dark-spotted; nectary ± diamond-shaped to ovate ..... F. ojaiensis

10' Perianth green-white, pale green or ± green or yellow to red or dark purple to ± black, mottled (especially Fritillaria affinis); nectary lanceolate or narrower

11. Perianth pale green to ± black (dark purple), not mottled; nectary ± 1/2 perianth; small bulb scales 0–4; Outer South Coast Ranges(?), Inner South Coast Ranges (Monterey, San Benito, San Luis Obispo cos.) ..... F. viridea

11' Perianth green-white or -yellow to red or ± purple, mottled or not; nectary < 1/2 perianth (1/2–2/3 in Fritillaria affinis); small bulb scales generally >= 10 (< 10 in Fritillaria affinis); Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California

12. Perianth generally > 2 cm, generally clearly yellow- or purple-mottled, margins wavy — Northwestern California, Cascade Range Foothills, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California (except Inner South Coast Ranges) ..... F. affinis

12' Perianth generally < 2 cm, not (or faintly) mottled, margins not wavy

13. Style branches not or ± recurved; perianth ± green to yellow to red, tips generally recurved or flared; nectary green, gold, or yellow; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range (Shasta, Tehama, Butte cos.) ..... F. eastwoodiae

13' Style branches recurved; perianth ± purple to green-white, tips not recurved or flared; nectary green-white, dotted purple; Sierra Nevada ..... F. micrantha

7' Leaves <= 10 or alternate (crowded), occasionally sickle-shaped

14. Perianth clearly mottled (white with purple spots or lines and pink shading in Fritillaria purdyi); small bulb scales generally > 10 (0–3 in Fritillaria purdyi)

15. Leaves sickle-shaped; flowers ± erect; San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges (San Benito Co.) ..... F. falcata

15' Leaves generally not sickle-shaped; flowers nodding or spreading (spreading to ± erect in Fritillaria pinetorum); not San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges (San Benito Co.)

16. Leaves 2–10, ovate, sickle-shaped or not; perianth white, spotted or lined purple; small bulb scales 0–3 ..... F. purdyi

16' Leaves generally > 4, not sickle-shaped, perianth purple-brown, mottled yellow or white; small bulb scales 45–50

17. Flowers nodding; upper leaves ± <= lowest cauline leaf; cauline leaves generally < inflorescence; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains ..... F. atropurpurea (2)

17' Flowers spreading to ± erect; upper leaves ± 1/3–1/2 lowest cauline leaf; cauline leaves often >= inflorescence; c High Sierra Nevada (Mono, Inyo cos.), Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges ..... F. pinetorum (2)

14' Perianth not clearly mottled; small bulb scales < 10

18. Leaves 2–4, sickle-shaped ..... F. glauca

18' Leaves generally > 4, not sickle-shaped

19. Nectary an obscure narow band 1/2–2/3 perianth; perianth white, striped green ..... F. liliacea

19' Nectary a prominent narrow band 2/3 to = perianth; perianth brown, purple-brown, or green-purple at least adaxially

20. Perianth green-white or yellow abaxially, purple-brown adaxially; flower ill-scented ..... F. agrestis

20' Perianth dark brown, green-purple or yellow-green; flower ill-scented or not ..... F. biflora

21. Leaves narrowly ovate to oblong; flower not ill-scented ..... var. biflora

21' Leaves linear to narrowly lanceolate; flower ill-scented ..... var. ineziana


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.