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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Geraldine A. Allen

Bulb elongate of 1–2 fleshy scales, generally with small, bead-like parts of persistent rhizome. Leaf: 2 (1 in non-flowering plant), basal, 6–35 cm, lanceolate to ovate (solitary basal leaf wider), narrowed to petiole, often mottled, glabrous; margin entire to wavy. Inflorescence: peduncled raceme; flowers 1–10; bracts 0. Flower: showy, generally nodding; perianth parts 6, similar, free, ± lanceolate, ± recurved; stamens 6; style 1, stigma entire to 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, ovoid to oblong. Seed: ± ovoid, ± angular, brown.
± 27 species: especially temperate North America. (Greek: red, from flowers of some) Leaf, flower markings to be noted when fresh, because of fading in pressed specimens.
Unabridged references: [Applegate 1935 Madroño 3:58–113; Shevock et al. 1990 Madroño 37:261–273]

Key to Erythronium

1. Leaves uniformly green, not mottled

2. Perianth yellow; stigma entire or lobed

3. Perianth parts 15–28 mm; style, filaments yellow; stigma entire or lobes < 1 mm; flowers 1–10 ..... E. pluriflorum

3' Perianth parts 20–35 mm; style, filaments white; stigma ± entire or lobes < 1 mm or 2–4 mm; flowers 1–5

4. Flowers 1(3); style 10–15 mm; fresh perianth parts with narrow, pale zone at base; stigma lobes 2–4 mm; Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges ..... E. grandiflorum subsp. grandiflorum

4' Flowers 1–5; style 8–10 mm; fresh perianth parts without pale zone at base; stigma ± entire or lobes < 1 mm; c Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... E. tuolumnense

2' Perianth white with yellow base; stigma ± entire

5. Perianth parts 10–20 mm, without sac-like folds at base ..... E. purpurascens

5' Perianth parts 18–45 mm, inner with small sac-like folds at base

6. Perianth parts < 1/3 yellow; leaves 6–17 cm; flowers 1–3; Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range ..... E. klamathense

6' Perianth parts 1/3–2/3 yellow; leaves 10–35 cm; flowers 1–8; c&s High Sierra Nevada

7. Filaments ± white, anthers yellow; s High Sierra Nevada (Tulare Co.) ..... E. pusaterii

7' Filaments ± yellow, anthers cream; c High Sierra Nevada (Tuolumne Co.) ..... E. taylorii

1' Leaves irregularly mottled with brown or white

8. Filaments >= 1 mm wide; stigma lobed

9. Perianth parts white with yellow base ..... E. oregonum

9' Perianth parts violet-pink with yellow base ..... E. revolutum

8' Filaments < 0.8 mm wide; stigma entire to lobed

10. Perianth violet to pink with dark purple base ..... E. hendersonii

10' Perianth ± white with yellow base

11. Style 10–15 mm; anthers white to cream

12. Peduncle when flowers > 1 branched well above leaves; bulblets 0 ..... E. californicum

12' Peduncle when flowers > 1 branched near ground; bulblets from long, slender rhizomes ..... E. multiscapideum

11' Style 4–10 mm; anthers white, cream, yellow, or pink to red tinged

13. Anthers yellow; style ± bent; bulblets 0 or sessile ..... E. helenae

13' Anthers white to cream, pink to brown- or purple-red; style ± straight; bulblets 0 ..... E. citrinum

14. Anthers white to cream ..... var. citrinum

14' Anthers pink to brown- or purple-red ..... var. roderickii


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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