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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

CALOCHORTUS

Peggy L. Fiedler


Bulb coat generally membranous, occasionally fibrous. Stem: scapose or leafy, generally erect, generally branched, bulblets in axils of lower leaves or 0. Leaf: generally linear to lanceolate; basal leaf 1, persistent or not; cauline leaves 0–several, occasionally appearing basal, generally smaller upward, withering or not. Inflorescence: often ± umbel-like; flowers 2–many; bracts 0–several, generally opposite, often paired. Flower: perianth ± closed, spheric to oblong, or open, bell-shaped or ± rotate; sepals generally < petals, generally ± lanceolate (ovate), generally ± glabrous; petals generally widely wedge-shaped, occasionally clawed, generally hairy adaxially, nectary near base; stamens 6, filaments ± flat, often dilated at base, anthers generally attached at base or appearing so; style 1, stigmas 3. Fruit: capsule, septicidal; oblong or linear, generally 3-angled or -winged, chambers 3. Seed: many in 2 rows per chamber, flat, generally ± tan or ± yellow, translucent, or irregular dark brown, often net-like.
± 67 species: western North America, Central America; many cultivated. (Greek: beautiful grass) Bulbs of some eaten by Native Americans. Many taxa variable, difficult to key.
Unabridged references: [Patterson & Givnish 2003 New Phytologist 161:253–264]

Key to Calochortus

1. Flower nodding; perianth ± closed, spheric to oblong

2. Petal white, pink, or rose

3. Sepal appressed to petals; lower nectary membrane 1/3–2/3 petal width; petal generally white to pink; s Cascade Range Foothills, n&c Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, n Channel Islands, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges ..... C. albus

3' Sepal spreading, not appressed to petals; lower nectary membrane ± = petal width; petal rose; c&s Sierra Nevada (Madera, Fresno cos.) ..... C. amoenus

2' Petal yellow

4. Stem generally simple above base; petals > sepals, hairy; plant generally 10–100 cm, very glaucous ..... C. raichei

4' Stem generally branched above base; petals generally <= sepals, glabrous to sparsely hairy; plant generally < 30(50) cm, not very glaucous

5. Plant ± glaucous; petal deep yellow; Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, nw San Francisco Bay Area ..... C. amabilis

5' Plant green; petal light yellow; ne San Francisco Bay Area (Mount Diablo, Contra Costa Co.) ..... C. pulchellus

1' Flower erect to spreading; perianth open, bell-shaped or ± rotate

6. Fruit nodding; petal ± not spotted or striped (or above-ground stem < 10 cm) (sect. Calochortus in part)

7. Petal generally > 30 mm, pink to ± purple; ne Klamath Ranges (Siskiyou Co.) ..... C. persistens

7' Petal generally < 28 mm, color various; widespread except s California

8. Petal ± glabrous adaxially

9. Cauline leaves ± 0; s High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada ..... C. minimus

9' Cauline leaves present; Northwestern California, n&c Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area

10. Stem 8–25 cm, branched, bulblets 0; s Outer North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area ..... C. umbellatus

10' Stem generally < 5 cm, generally simple, bulblets present; Northwestern California, High Cascade Range, n&c Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area ..... C. uniflorus

8' Petal ± conspicuously hairy adaxially

11. Petal deep yellow — Cascade Range Foothills, sw High Cascade Range, n&c Sierra Nevada ..... C. monophyllus

11' Petal white, pink, purple, or blue

12. Petal lanceolate to obovate, ± ciliate on sides but not tip

13. Petal obovate to wedge-shaped; stem simple or branched; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada, n Sacramento Valley, n Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area ..... C. tolmiei

13' Petal lanceolate; stem simple; s High Sierra Nevada (Greenhorn Mtns) ..... C. westonii

12' Petal ± oblanceolate to obovate, ciliate throughout

14. Petal ± blue (purple crescent 0), ± smooth (not bumpy) adaxially; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada ..... C. coeruleus

14' Petal green-white, base dark ± purple, minute-bumpy adaxially; e Klamath Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges ..... C. elegans

6' Fruit erect; petal spotted or striped (except Calochortus nudus, occasionally Calochortus palmeri)

15. Basal leaf ± persistent at flower

16. Petal light yellow-green, flecked purple-brown; n Central Coast (Ring Mtn, Marin Co.) ..... C. tiburonensis

16' Petal white to purple; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau

17. Petal with red-purple crescent above nectary adaxially ..... C. longebarbatus var. longebarbatus

17' Petal without crescent adaxially

18. Petal 30–40 mm with dark purple crescent abaxially; nectary deeply depressed; dry places; < 1100 m ..... C. greenei

18' Petal 14–16 mm, without crescent abaxially; nectary ± shallow; moist places; > 1200 m ..... C. nudus

15' Basal leaf ± withered by flowering (except Calochortus excavatus, Calochortus syntrophus)

19. Nectary surface ± glabrous but ± hidden by bordering hairs; bulb coat fibrous — s Central Western California, Southwestern California

20. Petal ± pink, generally toothed, not ciliate ..... C. plummerae

20' Petal tan, yellow, ± purple to red-brown, generally ± ciliate

21. Petal tip dark-hair-tufted ..... C. obispoensis

21' Petal tip fringed, not hair-tufted

22. Petal margin fringed with 2 rows of hairs; anthers abruptly pointed; Outer South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges ..... C. fimbriatus

22' Petal margin fringed with 1 row of hairs; anthers rounded; Outer South Coast Ranges, South Coast, Western Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges ..... C. weedii

23. Petal deep yellow ..... var. weedii

23' Petal light yellow or tan or dark ± purple to red-brown ..... var. intermedius

19' Nectary surface hairy; bulb coat membranous

24. Nectary ± round, clearly depressed, encircled by fringed membrane

25. Petal generally orange to red ..... C. kennedyi var. kennedyi

25' Petal yellow, gold, or white generally tinged lilac or lavender

26. Petal white, tinged lilac, or lavender, green-striped abaxially; sepal occasionally dark-spotted

27. Petal base marked dark purple; bracts generally 3–8 cm; anthers red-brown — sw East of Sierra Nevada ..... C. excavatus

27' Petal base white or tinged lilac; bracts 2–7 cm; anthers yellow, maroon, blue, purple, red or red-brown

28. Sepal base not spotted; petal obovate to wedge-shaped ..... C. invenustus

28' Sepal base dark-spotted; petal narrowly obovate

29. Petal with red or purple arch above nectary; nectary in yellow spot; n High Sierra Nevada, e edges c&s High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, s East of Sierra Nevada ..... C. bruneaunis

29' Petal without dark arch above nectary; nectary in red or purple spot; n Desert Mountains (Panamint Range) ..... C. panamintensis

26' Petal yellow or gold, not green-striped abaxially; sepal base generally dark-spotted

30. Perianth bell-shaped; nectary encircled by slender or club-shaped hairs; stem straight or occasionally twisted — San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, n&e Desert Mountains

31. Leaves flat or inrolled; nectary encircled by dense, slender hairs; stem straight, generally stout; San Bernardino Mountains (s slope), Peninsular Ranges ..... C. concolor

31' Leaves channeled; nectary encircled by sparse, club-like hairs; stem occasionally twisted; n&e Desert Mountains (Panamint, Clark Mtn ranges, Providence Mtns) ..... C. kennedyi var. munzii

30' Perianth cup-shaped; nectary encircled by club-shaped hairs; stem often zigzag ..... C. clavatus

32. Petal generally < sepal; nectary deep — n Sierra Nevada Foothills (El Dorado, Amador cos.) ..... var. avius

32' Petal >= sepal; nectary shallow to ± deep

33. Stem generally < 30 cm, slender, straight

34. Petal 30–40 mm, sparsely hairy; leaves not recurved; Western Transverse Ranges, San Gabriel Mountains ..... var. gracilis

34' Petal 40–50 mm, hairy; leaves strongly recurved; s-c Central Coast (nw San Luis Obispo Co.) ..... var. recurvifolius

33' Stem generally 50–100 cm, coarse, zigzag

35. Petal deep yellow, hairs very knobby; anther deep purple; s Outer South Coast Ranges, n Inner South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges, San Gabriel Mountains ..... var. clavatus

35' Petal light yellow, hairs not very knobby; anther yellow to purple; w San Joaquin Valley (and adjacent e San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges), n Western Transverse Ranges ..... var. pallidus

24' Nectary not simultaneously round, depressed, and surrounded by fringed membrane (but occasionally 1 of these)

36. Stem bulblets generally 0 (except some Calochortus splendens)

37. Petal purple-veined, not spotted ..... C. striatus

37' Petal spotted, not obviously veined or striped

38. Stem twining or sprawling; perianth yellow-banded ..... C. flexuosus

38' Stem ± erect; perianth not yellow-banded

39. Petal white or flushed pink, red-brown-spotted above nectary, nectary yellow-hairy; s Peninsular Ranges (s San Diego Co.) ..... C. dunnii

39' Petal lavender to deep purple, base generally purple-spotted, not yellow-hairy; c&s Inner North Coast Ranges, w edge San Joaquin Valley, Central Western California, w Southwestern California, San Jacinto Mountains, w edge Sonoran Desert ..... C. splendens (2)

36' Stem bulblets generally present (except Calochortus palmeri var. munzii)

40. Petal bright or deep yellow

41. Nectary generally ± square ..... C. venustus (2)

41' Nectary chevron- or crescent-shaped to oblong

42. Petal pale yellow ..... C. argillosus (2)

42' Petal deep yellow ..... C. luteus

40' Petal white to pink, purple, lavender, or red

43. Petal light to deep lilac, lavender, or variably colored — generally with sparse white hairs near base; not striped, highly patterned ..... C. splendens (2)

43' Petal all or variably white, pink, purple, or red

44. Nectary ± ovate or oblong (occasionally ± round)

45. Anther sagittate — High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, East of Sierra Nevada ..... C. leichtlinii

45' Anther not sagittate

46. Fruit narrowly oblong, not angled ..... C. catalinae

46' Fruit linear, angled

47. Petals generally 40–50 mm; nectary hairs slender; ne Klamath Ranges (near Yreka, Siskiyou Co.) ..... C. monanthus

47' Petals generally 20–30 mm; nectary hairs thick; Tehachapi Mountain Area, s Central Western California, Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains ..... C. palmeri

48. Nectary glabrous or purple-hairy; stem bulblets 0; bracts opposite; San Jacinto Mountains ..... var. munzii

48' Nectary yellow-hairy; stem bulblets present; bracts alternate; Tehachapi Mountain Area, s Central Western California, Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains ..... var. palmeri

44' Nectary 1–2 crescents or chevrons, ± triangular, ± square, or ± elliptic

49. Nectary ± triangular-sagittate; sepals generally > petals ..... C. macrocarpus

49' Nectary 1–2 crescents or chevrons or ± square or ± elliptic; sepals <= petals

50. Nectary ± square

51. Nectary in red spot; 2nd, distal, paler petal spot 0 (present); seed 5–6 mm, 3 mm wide ..... C. simulans

51' Nectary not in red spot; 2nd, distal, paler petal spot generally present; seed 4–5 mm, 1–2 mm wide ..... C. venustus (2)

50' Nectary 1–2 crescents, chevrons, or ± elliptic

52. Nectary 2 crescents or chevrons ..... C. vestae

52' Nectary 1 crescent, chevron, or ± elliptic

53. Nectary hairs orange; petal light yellow basally; basal leaves generally persistent; Cascade Range (The Cove, Shasta Co.) ..... C. syntrophus

53' Nectary hairs red-brown or brown; petal highly variable in color basally, often purple-lined near base; basal leaves generally withering; Northwestern California, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, s High Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Southwestern California

54. Fruit lanceolate; w Central Western California ..... C. argillosus (2)

54' Fruit linear; Northwestern California, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, s High Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Southwestern California ..... C. superbus

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