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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



J. Chris Pires & Robert E. Preston

Daughter corms often present. Leaf: generally 1–6, linear, generally crescent-shaped in ×-section, glabrous, entire, often withered at flower. Inflorescence: open; scape 2–70 cm, generally slender, generally straight, cylindric; bracts scarious; pedicels generally > flowers, generally < 13 cm. Flower: perianth tube bell- to funnel-shaped, green-white, lobes erect to spreading, violet to lavender, occasionally pink, midribs purple or green; staminodes (0)3, generally ± erect, opposite outer lobes, white to violet or lavender, lateral margins flat, incurved, or inrolled; stamens 3, equal, fused to perianth, opposite inner lobes, filaments occasionally winged or appendaged, free or fused basally to staminodes, generally not forming crown-like tube, anthers attached at base, appressed to style, abaxially papillate; style 1, stigma lobes 3, spreading and recurved. Fruit: sessile, ovoid. Seed: oblong, black, lined, angles ridged.
± 18 species: mostly endemic to California. (James Brodie, Scottish botanist, 1744–1824) [Preston 2006 Novon 16:254–259] Several undescribed taxa, hybrids under study. Brodiaea matsonii R.E. Preston described from Shasta Co., 2010.
Unabridged references: [Preston 2006 Madroño 53:46–54; Chester et al. 2007 Madroño 54:187–198]

Key to Brodiaea

1. Staminodes 0 ..... B. orcuttii

1' Staminodes generally present (see Brodiaea santarosae)

2. Staminodes thread-like or narrow, uniformly tapered base to tip

3. Perianth 13–28 mm; filaments 0.5–1.5 mm; staminodes 1–4 mm, reflexed against perianth ..... B. filifolia

3' Perianth 24–36.5 mm; filaments 2.4–8.2 mm; staminodes 0 in ± 10% of flowers, or <= 7 mm, erect to recurved or reflexed, the shorter against perianth ..... B. santarosae

2' Staminodes linear to oblong, uniformly wide or abruptly narrowed at tip

4. Perianth tube narrowed above ovary

5. Staminode tips spreading to erect, margins 3/4 inrolled; stamens narrow-notched between anther sacs; filaments T-shaped in ×-section ..... B. minor

5' Staminode tips erect, margins flat to 1/2 inrolled; stamens wide-notched between anther sacs; filaments V- or Y-shaped in ×-section

6. Perianth lobes not paler toward base; perianth tube narrowed above ovary; staminodes in width < outer perianth lobes ..... B. nana

6' Perianth lobes paler toward base; perianth tube ± narrowed above ovary; staminodes in width >= outer perianth lobes ..... B. pallida

4' Perianth tube not narrowed above ovary

7. Staminodes generally > 15 mm

8. Staminode margins wavy or toothed, 1/4–1/2 inrolled, midrib not noticeably thickened ..... B. californica

8' Staminode margins generally flat, 1/4 inrolled, midrib noticeably thickened

9. Perianth lobes violet with green midrib; staminodes 14.5–21.5 mm; style 15.5–23.5 mm ..... B. leptandra

9' Perianth lobes violet (pink); staminodes 20.5–30 mm; style 20–31.5 mm ..... B. sierrae

7' Staminodes < 15 mm

10. Perianth <= 25(28) mm; filaments <= 3 mm, channeled abaxially, basal 1–2 mm fused with staminodes; style generally < ovary

11. Staminodes held away from stamens, tip narrowed abruptly to sharp point ..... B. kinkiensis

11' Staminodes leaning toward or appressed to stamens, tip obtuse or notched

12. Perianth lobes spreading; staminodes not hooded at tip, appressed to stamens, margins 1/4–3/4 inrolled ..... B. insignis

12' Perianth lobes ascending; staminodes hooded at tip, leaning toward stamens, margins not to 1/4 incurved

13. Staminodes violet, in width < perianth lobes; filament appendages 0; ovary purple ..... B. jolonensis

13' Staminodes white, in width = perianth lobes; filament abaxial wings extended at tip as 2 wide, white appendages; ovary green ..... B. stellaris

10' Perianth (15)21.5–47 mm; filaments generally >= 3 mm, flat to convex abaxially, free from staminodes to base; style generally >= ovary

14. Perianth tube funnel-shaped; staminodes held away from, < stamens ..... B. elegans subsp. elegans

14' Perianth tube cylindric to bell-shaped; staminodes leaning toward or appressed to, > stamens

15. Staminode margins wavy or toothed; filaments with 2 thread-like appendages at anther bases ..... B. appendiculata

15' Staminode margins not wavy or toothed; filament appendages 0

16. Perianth lobes pink, occasionally streaked purple; staminodes bottle-shaped (widest at base, middle), margins inrolled ..... B. rosea

16' Perianth lobes violet (white); staminodes oblong, margins incurved, often to tip (flat or incurved below tip in Brodiaea coronaria)

17. Scape 0.5–7 cm, generally < pedicels; anther tips generally reflexed, with dentate lobe in notch ..... B. terrestris subsp. terrestris

17' Scape 2–25 cm, generally > pedicels; anther tips erect to reflexed, generally without dentate lobe in notch

18. Staminodes generally white, margins flat or incurved below tip, tips erect to reflexed, obtuse ..... B. coronaria

18' Staminodes violet (white), margins incurved, often to tip, tips erect, notched or with small tooth ..... B. terrestris subsp. kernensis


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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