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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Deborah Engle Averett

Annual to shrub. Leaf: entire to lobed or toothed, generally not spine-tipped. Inflorescence: clusters generally many-flowered, generally head-like, generally ± spheric, generally involucred, generally surrounding nodes in generally ± spike-like, generally interrupted panicles, or flowers 1–several per leaf axil. Flower: calyx generally 2-lipped, upper lip entire or of 3 generally shallow, occasionally spine-tipped lobes, lower lip generally of 2 generally spine-tipped lobes; corolla 2-lipped, upper lip 2-lobed to entire, lower lip with 3 spreading lobes, middle lobe generally expanded; fertile stamens 2, attached in throat, anther sacs 1–2 per stamen, if 2 then separate on thread-like structure with 1 fertile, > other; style forked at tip.
± 900 species: ± worldwide, especially tropics, subtropical America. (Latin: to save, from medicinal use) [Walker & Sytsma 2007 Ann Bot 100:375–391] Polyphyletic (taxonomic revision needed); California natives in monophyletic sect. Audibertia. All species good bee fodder; seeds edible, a traditional food of native Californians. Historical waifs, Salvia microphylla Kunth last collected in California in 1943, Salvia verbenacea L. in 1936.

Key to Salvia

1. Annual

2. Corolla tube 15–25 mm; bract 2–5 cm; plant white-woolly ..... S. carduacea

2' Corolla tube 6–8 mm; bract < ± 1 cm; plant short-hairy ..... S. columbariae

1' Perennial herb to shrub

3. Leaf spine-tipped

4. Leaf white-woolly, short-petioled, generally deciduous, spines in 1–2 pairs or 0 on margins; calyx lobes triangular, white-woolly ..... S. funerea

4' Leaf green-tomentose, sessile or short-petioled, persistent, spines in 2–7 pairs on margins; calyx lobes lanceolate, not white-woolly ..... S. greatae

3' Leaf not spine-tipped

5. Perennial herb; leaf ± green

6. Corolla tube red to salmon, 25–35 mm, upper lip straight; calyx hairs short, white ..... S. spathacea

6' Corolla tube pale yellow or violet-blue (white), 10–20 mm, upper lip arched; calyx soft-wavy-hairy and glandular, to white-woolly

7. Corolla tube pale yellow; calyx white-woolly ..... S. aethiopis

7' Corolla tube violet-blue (white); calyx soft-wavy-hairy and glandular ..... S. virgata

5' Subshrub or shrub (perennial herb); leaf ± green to ± gray-white

8. Stamens included to ± exserted

9. Leaf linear to linear-elliptic, margins rolled under, abaxially with branched hairs; heterostylous ..... S. brandegeei

9' Leaf oblanceolate to oblong-elliptic or obovate, margins not or only ± rolled under, abaxially with simple hairs; not heterostylous

10. Corolla tube white to pale blue or lavender (pale rose); flower clusters 1.6–4 cm wide; leaf oblong-elliptic to obovate ..... S. mellifera

10' Corolla tube dark blue; flower clusters 1–1.5 cm wide; leaf oblanceolate to obovate ..... S. munzii

8' Stamens generally exserted

11. Lower corolla lip generally > 2 × upper; hairs simple

12. Leaf generally ± green, or ± gray from ± bristly hairs; inflorescence generally < 5 dm

13. Erect shrub; leaf linear; corolla tube white to pale lilac ..... S. eremostachya

13' Prostrate subshrub; leaf lance-elliptic to obovate; corolla tube blue to lilac or purple ..... S. sonomensis

12' Leaf ± gray-velvety from minute appressed hairs; inflorescence generally > 10 dm

14. Leaf blade base tapered; calyx lobes ± or not spine-tipped; flowers in ± spike-like clusters, arranged in ± raceme-like, interrupted panicles ..... S. apiana

14' Leaf blade base ± truncate to tapered; calyx lobes spine-tipped; flower clusters in ± spike-like, interrupted panicles ..... S. vaseyi

11' Lower corolla lip < 2 × upper; hairs simple or branched

15. Width of middle lower corolla lobe < 1/2 length; leaf puckered, teeth rounded, hairs simple or branched, moderately dense to sparse, spreading

16. Leaf blade base ± truncate to ± cordate; leaf ashy-gray, hairs branched; tissue between anther sacs glabrous ..... S. leucophylla

16' Leaf blade base tapered to ± truncate; leaf yellow- to gray-green, hairs simple; tissue between anther sacs glandular-hairy

17. Bracts dark, firm, < calyx; spikes of 1–3 flower clusters ..... S. clevelandii

17' Bracts pale to dark, papery, >> calyx; flower clusters generally 1 per flower stem ..... S. mohavensis

15' Width of middle lower corolla lobe >= length; leaf not puckered, ± entire, scaly or hairs simple, very dense, appressed

18. Corolla tube blue-violet to rose, generally 13–23 mm; bract 10–20 mm; leaf 2–5 cm ..... S. pachyphylla

18' Corolla tube blue (purple to rose, or white), generally 6–13 mm; bract 5–12(14) mm; leaf 0.4–3 cm ..... S. dorrii

19. Bract, calyx abaxially soft-shaggy-hairy or scaly, margin hairs long ..... var. pilosa

19' Bract, calyx glabrous to scaly, margin hairs generally short

20. Leaf abruptly narrowed to petiole, 0.6–2 cm, widest 0.2–1.3 cm from base ..... var. dorrii

20' Leaf tapered to petiole, 1–4 cm, widest 0.6–2.8 cm from base ..... var. incana


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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