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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Andrew C. Sanders, Mark A. Elvin & Mark S. Brunell

Annual to shrub, ± gland-dotted, scented. Leaf: entire to serrate, margin flat or wavy; petioles 0 or present, often grading into blade. Inflorescence: flowers in compact clusters of >= 1 per main stem, these occasionally arrayed in panicles (rarely spikes); flowers 3–100 per cluster; bracts generally erect in a cup-like involucre or reflexed, reduced in size inward, leaf-like to membranous in texture, green or straw-colored to rose or purple, linear to ovate, acuminate to acute or obtuse. Flower: calyx 5-lobed; 4–25 mm; corolla white to purple or yellow to red, weakly bilateral, upper lip erect, 2-lobed, lower lip recurved, 3-lobed; stamens 4; style unequally 2-lobed.
> 30 species: western North America. (Latin: small Monarda) [Elvin & Sanders 2009 Novon 19:315–343; Epling 1925 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 12:1–106; Jepson 1943 Fl California 431–444] Complex; study needed; many taxa intergrade; flower cluster width and bract orientation given for pressed specimens. Leaf length including petiole, if present. M. Brunell authored Monardella follettii (in part), Monardella odoratissima (in part), Monardella palmeri, Monardella purpurea, Monardella sheltonii (in part), Monardella stebbinsii, Monardella villosa (in part).
Unabridged references: [Abrams 1951 Ill Fl Pac Sts V III:648–660]

Key to Monardella

1. Calyx generally >= 12 mm; corolla lobes 1/5–1/2 tube; subshrub

2. Corolla 15–30 mm, white to cream-yellow or rose-tinged, tube cylindrical, 0.5–2 mm diam at tip, lobes spreading; calyx (10)12–15 mm; anthers < 1 mm ..... M. nana

2' Corolla 35–45 mm, red-orange to yellow, tube funnel-shaped, 1.5–3 mm diam at tip, lobes ascending; calyx 20–25 mm; anthers 1.2–1.5 mm ..... M. macrantha

3. Stem sparsely hairy; leaf triangular-ovate, sparsely to densely hairy, ciliate ..... subsp. hallii

3' Stem glabrous to sparsely hairy; leaf elliptic to ovate, ± glabrous, not ciliate ..... subsp. macrantha

1' Calyx <= 12 mm; corolla lobes > 1/2 tube; annual to shrub

4. Leaf margin wavy, generally ± entire (occasionally ± serrate)

5. Leaf < 10 mm, narrowly ovate to triangular-ovate; subalpine forest; s High Sierra Nevada ..... M. beneolens

5' Leaf >= 10 mm, linear to (ob)ovate; dunes, openings in coastal scrub and woodland; Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, s Outer South Coast Ranges

6. Annual; main stem generally branching below middle ..... M. sinuata

7. Plant compact; stem stout, generally highly branched; bracts dark-tipped, dark-veined, conspicuously spreading-hairy, especially along veins; distal-most stem internode spreading-hairy; leaves generally weakly wavy; n Central Coast (Monterey Co. and n), San Francisco Bay Area ..... subsp. nigrescens

7' Plant erect; stem slender, sparingly branched; bracts generally not dark-tipped or dark-veined (occasionally purple), sparsely short-hairy; distal-most stem internode ± glabrous; leaves weakly to strongly wavy; s Central Coast (San Luis Obispo Co. and s), s Outer South Coast Ranges, extirpated in w South Coast ..... subsp. sinuata

6' Subshrub to shrub; main stem branching above middle ..... M. undulata

8. Plant prostrate to mounded, moderately to densely hairy; leaves appearing pale green, oblanceolate to (ob)ovate, obtuse, largest 5–15 mm wide; main stem decumbent; lateral and terminal branches erect, short, > 1.5 mm diam; plant of active dunes ..... subsp. crispa

8' Plant ± erect, sparsely to moderately hairy; leaves green, linear to narrowly (ob)lanceolate, acute to obtuse, largest 2–7(8) mm wide; main stem ± erect; lateral and terminal branches ascending, < 1.5 mm diam; plant of ± stabilized to semi-stabilized dunes

9. Stem, leaves sparsely to moderately hairy; flower cluster 18–30 mm wide; bracts lanceolate to ovate, acute to obtuse-acuminate, generally 5–9 mm wide; lateral, terminal branches generally 1–1.5 mm diam; Santa Barbara Co. ..... subsp. arguelloensis

9' Stem, leaves sparsely hairy; flower cluster 10–20 mm wide; bracts lanceolate to narrowly ovate, acuminate, generally 3–5 mm wide; lateral, terminal branches generally < 1 mm diam; San Luis Obispo Co. ..... subsp. undulata

4' Leaf margin slightly or not wavy, entire to serrate

10. Annual; main stem 1; flower clusters several to many per main stem, in panicle-like array

11. Bract lateral veins ± perpendicular to midvein, areas between veins transparent to translucent

12. Stem slender; flower cluster 10–15 mm wide; bracts 10–15 mm, narrowly ovate, veins stout; narrow opaque band present beside bract veins; North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges ..... M. douglasii

12' Stem stout; flower cluster 20–30 mm wide; bracts 15–30 mm, widely ovate; bract veins slender; all of bract except veins transparent to translucent; n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... M. venosa

11' Bract lateral veins ± parallel to midvein, areas between veins ± opaque, membranous, or scarious

13. Bracts not white; calyx lobes not white; corolla rose or purple (white)

14. Bracts spreading-hairy, hairs > 1 mm ..... M. pringlei

14' Bracts appressed-hairy, hairs < 1 mm ..... M. breweri

15. Bracts generally broadly ovate, strongly acuminate, not or only sparsely cross-veined, generally purple-tinted; Western Transverse Ranges, South Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area ..... subsp. breweri

15' Bracts ± lance-ovate or narrower, acute, weakly to strongly cross-veined, occasionally purple tinted; Cascade Range Foothills, s High Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, s Outer South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California

16. Terminal flower clusters generally 18–25 mm wide; bracts generally 8–10 per flower cluster, > calyx; calyx generally 6.5–7.5 mm; mid-cauline leaves generally 40–60 mm; flowers generally 15–75 per cluster; plant 9–65 cm ..... subsp. lanceolata

16' Terminal flower clusters generally 5–15 mm wide; bracts generally 5–7 per flower cluster, <= calyx; calyx 6–7 mm; mid-cauline leaves generally 10–30 mm; flowers 3–25 per cluster; plant 9–30 cm

17. Conical glands abundant on stem; calyx sinuses hairy; s San Gabriel Mountains ..... subsp. glandulifera

17' Conical glands 0 on stem; calyx sinuses generally not hairy; s Peninsular Ranges ..... subsp. microcephala

13' Bracts at least partly white; calyx lobes, lobe tips, or margins white; corolla white

18. Calyx lobe tips awl-like, recurved; bracts white throughout (outermost rarely green-tinted); stamens included ..... M. leucocephala

18' Calyx lobe tips acute, erect; bracts partly white; stamens slightly exserted

19. Bracts conspicuously cross-veined between major parallel veins; flower clusters generally 12–25 mm wide, generally closely subtended by leaves, peduncle inconspicuous; main stem 1 or generally branching above middle; Sierra Nevada Foothills, e San Joaquin Valley (extirpated in n part of range) ..... M. candicans

19' Bracts not or inconspicuously cross-veined; flower clusters 10–20 mm wide, peduncle 1–3 cm; main stem 1 or generally branching below middle (pls in se Sierra Nevada Foothills generally branching distally); se Sierra Nevada, n Transverse Ranges, nw Mojave Desert ..... M. exilis

10' Subshrub to shrub; main stem 1–many; flower clusters 1–few (several) per main stem

20. Abaxial leaf face ± white to ash-gray, short- to long-hairy, felt-like, or woolly, considerably whiter than adaxial face

21. Stem and leaf hairs short, < 0.3 mm, dense, straight; corolla lavender to purple or rose

22. Flower clusters generally >= 20 mm wide; calyx 8–12 mm; leaves 20–40 mm, green adaxially; corolla lavender to purple; e San Gabriel Mountains ..... M. saxicola

22' Flower clusters generally <= 20 mm wide; calyx 7–8 mm; leaves 5–20(30) mm, many ± white (pl appearing pale); corolla rose to purple; s Inner North Coast Ranges ..... M. viridis

21' Stem and leaf hairs generally > 0.5 mm, generally woolly, curved to curled on abaxial leaf face; corolla white to lavender

23. Branched hairs abundant on stem — s Central Coast, s Outer South Coast Ranges (Santa Barbara to s Monterey cos.) ..... M. villosa subsp. obispoensis (2)

23' Branched hairs 0–few on stem

24. Leaf ovate to widely triangular-ovate, base generally truncate ..... M. villosa subsp. franciscana (2)

24' Leaf lance-linear to narrowly ovate, base tapered ..... M. hypoleuca

25. Leaf ± flat or margins weakly rolled-under, 7–19 mm wide, narrowly ovate; adaxial leaf face flat; corolla lavender; s Outer South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges ..... subsp. hypoleuca

25' Leaf margins weakly to strongly rolled-under, 3–9(12) mm wide, lance-linear to lanceolate; adaxial leaf face generally convex; corolla white; Peninsular Ranges

26. Hairs on adaxial leaf face sparse to 0, on stem sparse, short, or inconspicuous; nw Peninsular Ranges ..... subsp. intermedia

26' Hairs on adaxial leaf face ± dense, on stem long, spreading, conspicuous; sw Peninsular Ranges (San Diego Co.) ..... subsp. lanata

20' Abaxial leaf face ± green, ± gray, silvery, or purple, not considerably whiter than adaxial face

27. Plant of Mojave Desert with main inflorescence axis generally 3–several-branched and flower clusters small, 7–20(25) mm wide

28. Stem with conical glands ..... M. eremicola

28' Stem lacking conical glands

29. Stem with nonglandular hairs > 0.25 mm and glandular hairs 0.01–0.03 mm ..... M. robisonii

29' Stem with nonglandular hairs < 0.25 mm, glandular hairs 0

30. Bracts 8–9 mm; calyx hairs glandular (0.01–0.02 mm) and nonglandular (0.2–0.3 mm); stem 12–40 cm; 1400–1650 m; s-c Mojave Desert (Ord and Rodman mtns) ..... M. boydii

30' Bracts 10–11 mm; calyx hairs glandular (0.01–0.1 mm) only; stem 30–60 cm; 800–1500 m; e Desert Mountains ..... M. mojavensis

27' Plant of California Floristic Province or Great Basin Floristic Province, or, if of Mojave Desert, then main inflorescence axis not both branched and with small flower clusters

31. Stem hairs short (< 0.25 mm), very dense, uniform, and recurved ..... M. linoides

32. Leaves <= 4 mm wide

33. Bracts 10–15 mm, >= 5 mm wide; Peninsular Ranges, sw Desert Mountains (Little San Bernardino Mtns), s Mojave Desert ..... subsp. linoides

33' Bracts 6–11 mm, < 5 mm wide; n&e San Bernardino Mountains ..... subsp. erecta

32' Leaves >= 4 mm wide

34. Stem 15–25 cm; bracts elliptic to lanceolate, acuminate; Tehachapi Mountain Area, n Western Transverse Ranges ..... subsp. oblonga

34' Stem 20–60 cm; bracts broadly lanceolate to ovate; s Sierra Nevada Foothills, c&s High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada, n Mojave Desert

35. Bracts 15–25 mm, 10–14 mm wide; peduncle stout, generally 5–15 cm (from distal-most leaves to flower cluster), 1–1.5 mm diam just proximal to flower cluster; flower cluster 20–30 mm wide; s Sierra Nevada Foothills, s High Sierra Nevada (Kern, Tulare cos.) ..... subsp. anemonoides

35' Bracts 7–15 mm, 6–9 mm wide; peduncle slender, generally 1–7 cm (from distal-most leaves to flower cluster), <= 1 mm diam just proximal to flower cluster; flower clusters 15–26 mm wide; c&s High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada, n Mojave Desert ..... subsp. sierrae

31' Stem hairs 0 or long and/or short, but not short (< 0.25 mm) and very dense and uniform and recurved

36. Stem hairs relatively long (> 0.3 mm)

37. Leaves thick; distal-stem hairs dense, felt-like ..... M. stebbinsii

37' Leaves thin; distal-stem hairs sparse to dense, but not felt-like

38. Plants n of Transverse Ranges ..... M. villosa

39. Branched hairs abundant and obvious ..... subsp. obispoensis (2)

39' Branched hairs 0 or inconspicuous

40. Leaf ovate to widely triangular-ovate, base generally truncate ..... subsp. franciscana (2)

40' Leaf ± narrowly ovate, base tapered to obtuse ..... subsp. villosa

38' Plants of Transverse Ranges and s ..... M. australis

41. Stem 3–15 cm; leaf 5–10 mm; corolla 9–11 mm; San Gabriel Mountains ..... subsp. cinerea

41' Stem 10–35 cm; leaf 6–30 mm; corolla 10–13 mm; San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, and/or San Jacinto Mountains

42. Bracts lanceolate, exceeding calyx; leaves entire to weakly serrate; generally 1 flower cluster per main stem; San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains ..... subsp. australis

42' Bracts narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, exceeded by or at same level as calyx; leaves dentate to serrate (entire); flower clusters 1–several per main stem; e San Gabriel Mountains ..... subsp. jokerstii

36' Stem lacking longer hairs (> 0.3 mm)

43. Plants s of Transverse Ranges

44. Leaves >= 4 mm wide; bracts 7–10 mm, 2.5–4 mm wide; flower clusters 10–15 mm wide ..... M. stoneana

44' Leaves <= 4 mm wide; bracts 10–15 mm, 5–9 mm wide; flower clusters 20–30 mm wide ..... M. viminea

43' Plants n of Transverse Ranges

45. Abaxial leaf hairs minute (< 0.05 mm), remarkably uniform in length and orientation, velvety in appearance ..... M. sheltonii

45' Abaxial leaf hairs 0 or long and/or short, but not remarkably uniform in length and orientation and velvety in appearance

46. Stem sparsely hairy (± glabrous) ..... M. odoratissima

47. Flower cluster subtended by unmodified leaves or not, if present 8–10 mm, reflexed or not; corolla lavender to (± red) purple ..... subsp. glauca

47' Flower cluster generally subtended by reflexed, unmodified leaves 10–20 mm; corolla generally white (occasionally lavender- to purple-tinged) ..... subsp. pallida

46' Stem ± glabrous

48. Hairs on calyx spreading-glandular; stem 30–60 cm ..... M. follettii

48' Hairs on calyx not spreading-glandular; stem 10–40 cm

49. Corolla 15–20 mm; calyx 9–12 mm ..... M. palmeri

49' Corolla 12–16 mm; calyx 6–8 mm ..... M. purpurea


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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