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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Anita F. Cholewa

[Annual] perennial herb; rhizomes compact. Stem: 1 or tufted, ± flat, winged, nodes well above basal leaves with leaves or not, each with >= 1 flower-branch. Leaf: bases overlapped, sheathing. Inflorescence: flowers in umbel-like cymes; bracts 2, equal in length or not, margins translucent. Flower: perianth red-purple, ± blue, violet, yellow (white), parts mucronate, ± alike, outer generally wider; filaments ± free to ± fused. Seed: ovoid, smooth or pitted.
100+ species: western hemisphere. (Latin, Greek: pig, snout) Use of treatments prior to ± 2003 often results in misidentification. Sisyrinchium douglasii moved to Olsynium.
Unabridged etymology: (Latin, sus, pig, and Greek, rhynchos, snout, alluding to swine digging the roots of some bulbous plant for food, spoken of by Pliny and Theophrastus (W.J. Hooker, 1830). The reason for applying the name to a genus of New World Iridaceae was apparently arbitrary.)
Unabridged references: [Henderson 1976 Brittonia 28:149–176]
Unabridged note: Use of treatments prior to ± 2003 often results in misidentification due to inconsistent or incorrect use of morphological terms and the fact the taxa look very much alike.

Key to Sisyrinchium

1. Perianth ± yellow; filaments ± completely free (sect. Echthronema)

2. Stem generally 2–7 mm wide; perianth generally 11–18 mm ..... S. californicum

2' Stem generally < 2 mm wide; perianth generally 7–11 mm

3. Pedicels spreading to drooping in fruit; fruit generally widest near or above middle ..... S. elmeri

3' Pedicels ascending to erect in fruit; fruit generally widest at middle ..... S. longipes

1' Perianth ± blue to violet (white), parts generally with a basal yellow blotch; filaments ± completely fused (sect. Sisyrinchium)

4. Stem branched; leaves cauline at >= 1 node

5. Translucent margins of inner bract not extended above tip; perianth deep blue-purple to -violet or pale blue, occasionally white, 10.5–17 mm, outer parts generally widely wedge-shaped; w California ..... S. bellum

5' Translucent margins of inner bract extended above tip as 2 rounded teeth; perianth generally pale blue, 10–15 mm, outer parts generally narrowly wedge-shaped; ne Mojave Desert ..... S. funereum

4' Stem unbranched; leaves all ± basal

6. Rhizome elongate; perianth ± purple, base darker ..... S. hitchcockii

6' Rhizome compact; perianth light to dark violet-blue (white), base not darker, with yellow blotch

7. Inner bract ± = outer, with widely translucent margins extended above tip as 2 rounded teeth; outer perianth parts generally wedge-shaped ..... S. halophilum

7' Inner bract << outer, with ± narrowly translucent margins ended at or below tip; outer perianth parts generally elliptic to narrowly oblanceolate ..... S. idahoense

8. Stem 2–2.5 mm wide, distal margins generally with a few small teeth; outer perianth parts 13–17(20) mm ..... var. idahoense

8' Stem 1.5–2 mm wide, distal margins generally entire; outer perianth parts 8–13 mm ..... var. occidentale


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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