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Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

LUPINUS LUPINE

Teresa Sholars


Annual to shrub; cotyledons generally petioled, withering early. Stem: generally erect. Leaf: palmately compound [or not], generally cauline; stipules fused to petiole; leaflets 3–17, generally oblanceolate, entire. Inflorescence: raceme, flowers spiraled or whorled, occasionally also in lower leaf axils; bracts generally deciduous. Flower: calyx 2-lipped, lobes entire or toothed, generally appendaged between; corolla blue, purple, white, or yellow, banner glabrous to densely hairy, centrally grooved, sides reflexed, wing tips ± fused, keel generally beaked; stamens 10, filaments fused, 5 long with short anthers, 5 short with long anthers; style brush-like. Fruit: dehiscent, generally oblong. Seed: 2–12, generally smooth.
± 220 species: especially western North America, western South America to eastern United States, also tropical South America, Mediterranean to western Asia, eastern tropical Africa; some cultivated for fodder, green manure, edible seed, ornamental. (Latin: wolf, from mistaken idea that plants rob soil of nutrients) Some (e.g., Lupinus arboreus, Lupinus latifolius, Lupinus leucophyllus) have alkaloids (especially in seeds, fruits, young herbage) TOXIC to livestock (especially sheep). [Barneby 1989 Intermountain Flora 3(B):237–267; Isely 1998 Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) US. M.L. Bean Museum, Brigham Young University] Inflorescence length excludes peduncle; some California species naturalized in eastern North America, South America, Australia, southern Africa. {hort link}

Key to Lupinus

1. Annual, rarely living > 1 growing season

2. Cotyledons sessile, persistent at plant base, disk- or cup-like, or deciduous, leaving circular scar; fruit generally ovoid; seeds generally 2, generally tubercled or wrinkled (fruit oblong; seeds 2–6 in Lupinus odoratus)

3. Flowers distinctly whorled; bracts reflexed; upper keel margins ciliate near claw

4. Stem generally not clearly hollow; lower keel margins as densely ciliate as upper; leaflets adaxially generally hairy; seed dark brown, tubercled

5. Plant 30–75 cm; petals generally pale yellow (± pink or bright blue); Northwestern California, Cascade Range Foothills, e San Francisco Bay Area and n Inner South Coast Ranges (Diablo Range), w Western Transverse Ranges ..... L. luteolus

5' Plant 100–200 cm; petals ± blue, in age ± yellow; Outer North Coast Ranges (Covelo, Mendocino Co.) ..... L. milo-bakeri

4' Stem clearly hollow at least below; lower keel margins glabrous or less ciliate than upper; leaflets adaxially glabrous; seed generally mottled, wrinkled or smooth ..... L. microcarpus

6. Wings widely elliptic, not withering, in age translucent; lower keel margins ciliate near claw; calyx appendages 1–2 mm ..... var. horizontalis

6' Wings linear to oblanceolate, withering, in age not translucent; lower keel margins occasionally sparsely ciliate near claw; calyx appendages generally 0

7. Bracts short-appressed- to long-spreading-hairy; fruit ± spreading, generally on 1 side of axis ..... var. densiflorus

7' Bracts long-shaggy-hairy; fruit generally ± erect, generally on > 1 side of axis ..... var. microcarpus

3' Flowers not distinctly whorled; bracts not reflexed; upper keel margins glabrous

8. Leaves basal; herbage sparsely hairy in youth, generally glabrous at flower; pedicel 3–5 mm — Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert ..... L. odoratus

8' Leaves cauline, often crowded near base; herbage sparsely hairy to canescent; pedicel generally < 3 mm

9. Plant 1–2(3) cm; inflorescences (1)2-flowered; free blades of stipules < 1 mm; leaflets 2–7 mm — Modoc Plateau ..... L. uncialis

9' Plant 3–20 cm; inflorescences 3–many flowered; free blades of stipules > 1 mm; leaflets generally > 7 mm

10. Herbage canescent; upper calyx lip ± = lower; upper suture of fruit generally wavy and densely stiff-ciliate; fruit sides with hairs short, inflated, when dry scale-like — Desert ..... L. shockleyi

10' Herbage sparsely to densely ± long-hairy; upper calyx lip < lower; upper suture of fruit not obviously wavy and densely stiff-ciliate; fruit sides with hairs long, not inflated.

11. Peduncle 0–1 cm; inflorescence < leaves; fruit oblong, narrowed between seeds — Great Basin Floristic Province (Modoc, Inyo cos.) ..... L. pusillus var. intermontanus

11' Peduncle 2–5(10) cm; inflorescence > leaves; fruit ovate, not narrowed between seeds

12. Inflorescence 1–2.5 cm; pedicels 0.5–1.5 mm; calyx appendages present; seed smooth; s Modoc Plateau, White and Inyo Mountains, e Mojave Desert ..... L. brevicaulis

12' Inflorescence 3–10 cm; pedicels 2–3 mm; calyx appendages 0; seed wrinkled; White and Inyo Mountains, e Mojave Desert ..... L. flavoculatus

2' Cotyledons petioled, generally withering, generally deciduous, not leaving circular scar; fruit oblong; seeds generally > 2, smooth

13. Lower and often upper margins of keel ciliate near claw, both glabrous near tip

14. Flowers whorled — petals generally blue-purple (white, pink, lavender); c&s Northwestern California, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California ..... L. succulentus (2)

14' Flowers spiralled (if appearing ± whorled, pedicel bases clearly spiralled, not whorled)

15. Inflorescence < peduncle — banner yellow, wings generally pink (± white), keel white; Sierra Nevada, n Outer South Coast Ranges (Monterey Co.), San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains ..... L. stiversii

15' Inflorescence generally > peduncle

16. Petals gold-yellow or white; pedicel recurving ..... L. citrinus

17. Petals gold-yellow, drying translucent, ± purple; c Sierra Nevada Foothills (Fresno, Madera cos.) ..... var. citrinus

17' Petals white, pink- or lavender-tinged or not, banner occasionally drying translucent, yellow; c Sierra Nevada Foothills (Mariposa Co.) ..... var. deflexus

16' Petals blue or dark pink to magenta; pedicel not recurving

18. Herbage short-appressed- and stiff-spreading-stinging-hairy; leaflets 10–20 mm wide — c&s Central Western California (San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, possibly others), Southwestern California ..... L. hirsutissimus

18' Herbage not stiff-spreading-stinging-hairy; leaflets generally < 10 mm wide

19. Petiole flat, leaflet-like; keel tip stout, blunt, upper margins ciliate middle to claw — c&s Central Western California, Southwestern California ..... L. truncatus

19' Petiole not flat, not leaflet-like; keel tip slender, pointed, upper margins generally glabrous

20. Pedicel 5–9 mm; bract 10–15 mm, >> flower bud — Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, deltaic Great Central Valley, Outer South Coast Ranges ..... L. benthamii

20' Pedicel < 5 mm; bract 3–8 mm, < to ± > flower bud

21. Leaflets 5–10 mm wide, adaxially glabrous; petals dark pink to magenta; e Mojave Desert, Sonoran Desert ..... L. arizonicus

21' Leaflets 2–4 mm wide, adaxially hairy at least near margins; petals generally blue (± pink); s South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California, Mojave Desert ..... L. sparsiflorus

13' Lower, upper keel margins glabrous or upper ciliate only near tip

22. Flowers spiralled; bracts generally persistent; upper keel margins generally glabrous

23. Plant with central peduncle erect, lateral often decumbent; open or disturbed areas, burns, s Sierra Nevada, c&s Central Western California, Southwestern California, Desert ..... L. concinnus

23' Plant with peduncles decumbent; stable dunes, s Central Coast (Nipomo Dunes, sw San Luis Obispo Co.) ..... L. nipomensis

22' Flowers whorled at some or all nodes; bracts deciduous; upper keel margins generally ciliate near tip

24. Banner longer than wide; pedicel generally < 3 mm

25. Fruit generally 3–6 mm wide; keel generally ciliate on upper margins near tip; abundant, < 1600 m, California Floristic Province, Mojave Desert ..... L. bicolor

25' Fruit 6–9 mm wide; keel glabrous; uncommon, < 600 m, Outer North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges ..... L. pachylobus

24' Banner as wide as or wider than long; pedicel generally > 3 mm

26. Upper keel margins with (occasionally inconspicuous) tooth near middle — North Coast, North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area ..... L. affinis

26' Upper keel margins without tooth

27. Fruit 4–7 mm wide — < 1300 m ..... L. nanus

27' Fruit 8–10 mm wide

28. Pedicel 4–5 mm; herbage sparsely hairy; Channel Islands (San Clemente Island) ..... L. guadalupensis

28' Pedicel 6–8 mm; herbage densely hairy; c Sierra Nevada Foothills (Mariposa, Tuolumne cos.) ..... L. spectabilis

1' Perennial herb to shrub

29. Upper keel margin ciliate from claw to middle, glabrous from middle to tip

30. Plant fleshy; inflorescence 9–15 cm; open or disturbed areas; fruit 35–50 mm ..... L. succulentus (2)

30' Plant not fleshy; inflorescence 16–60 cm; open to shady, moist areas; fruit 20–45 mm ..... L. latifolius

31. Flower 13–18 mm

32. Stem densely hairy; San Francisco Bay Area ..... var. dudleyi

32' Stem subglabrous to sparsely strigose; c High Sierra Nevada, s Sierra Nevada, Southwestern California ..... var. parishii

31' Flower 8–14 mm

33. Flower 8–10 mm

34. Stem glabrous to strigose; Modoc Plateau ..... var. barbatus

34' Stem strigose; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau ..... var. viridifolius

33' Flower 10–14 mm

35. Wings covering most of keel; plant 4–24 dm; Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada ..... var. columbianus

35' Wings not covering most of keel; plant 3–12 dm; Northwestern California, Central Western California, Southwestern California ..... var. latifolius

29' Upper keel margin glabrous or variously ciliate, but not as at 29.

36. Calyx with spur 1–3 mm

37. Wings with dense patch of hair outside near tip; leaf green, strigose; High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Gabriel Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... L. arbustus

37' Wings glabrous; leaf silver-silky; c High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... L. argenteus var. heteranthus

36' Calyx with bulge or spur 0–1 mm

38. Banner back generally hairy (best seen in buds)

39. Upper keel margin ± glabrous

40. Stem prostrate to decumbent, generally < 4 dm ..... L. albifrons var. collinus (3)

40' Stem erect, generally > 4 dm

41. Shrub — coastal strand, dunes ..... L. chamissonis

41' Perennial herb

42. Leaf green

43. Petals pale yellow to orange-yellow; High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... L. angustiflorus

43' Petals white to purple; n High Sierra Nevada ..... L. apertus

42' Leaf silver- to white-hairy

44. Petals generally yellow; n High Sierra Nevada (Plumas Co.) ..... L. dalesiae

44' Petals cream-yellow to -white, pale yellow, lavender, or blue; s High Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada;

45. Petals lavender to blue; 1500–3000 m; s High Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges ..... L. elatus (2)

45' Petals cream to pale yellow; generally > 2500 m; generally c High Sierra Nevada (n Inyo Co.) ..... L. padre-crowleyi

39' Upper keel margin ciliate

46. Subshrub or shrub

47. Keel generally lobed near base; flower 9–18 mm; s High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Southwestern California, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert ..... L. excubitus

48. Shrub, generally > 7 dm

49. Flower 9–13 mm; leaf silver-hairy; Mojave Desert, adjacent s High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada ..... var. excubitus

49' Flower 14–18 mm; leaf green-hairy; San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges ..... var. hallii

48' Subshrub, generally < 7 dm

50. Inflorescence 14–40 cm; Tehachapi Mountain Area, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains ..... var. austromontanus (2)

50' Inflorescence 3–14 cm; San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, Sonoran Desert

51. Petiole < 12 cm; San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains ..... var. johnstonii

51' Petiole generally > 12 cm; sw Sonoran Desert ..... var. medius

47' Keel generally unlobed near base; flower 9–16 mm; California Floristic Province ..... L. albifrons

52. Subshrub, generally < 5 dm, base, some lower branches woody

53. Leaf woolly to shaggy-hairy; Outer South Coast Ranges (Santa Lucia Range) ..... var. abramsii (2)

53' Leaf appressed-hairy, not woolly or shaggy-hairy; Northwestern California, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California ..... var. collinus (3)

52' Shrub, generally > 5 dm, woody ± throughout

54. Leaf woolly to shaggy-hairy; Outer South Coast Ranges (Santa Lucia Range) ..... var. abramsii (2)

54' Leaf hairy but not woolly or shaggy-hairy; North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California, South Coast, n Channel Islands

55. Bract 4–8 mm; North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California, South Coast ..... var. albifrons

55' Bract 10–24 mm; Central Coast, nw San Francisco Bay Area, s Outer South Coast Ranges, Channel Islands, w Western Transverse Ranges ..... var. douglasii

46' Perennial herb

56. Leaflet 10–30 mm at widest point

57. Petals yellow — San Gabriel Mountains ..... L. peirsonii (2)

57' Petals pink to ± purple or blue (or pale yellow)

58. Peduncle 13–20 cm; leaf long-spreading-hairy; petals light blue, pink, or straw (often drying pale yellow); Outer South Coast Ranges (Santa Lucia Range) ..... L. cervinus (2)

58' Peduncle 8–15 cm; leaf short-appressed-hairy; petals purple to violet; s Inner North Coast Ranges (Napa, Lake, Sonoma cos.) ..... L. sericatus (2)

56' Leaflet generally < 10 mm at widest point

59. Plant < 1 dm

60. Flowers in many crowded whorls; 2000–3500 m; High Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada ..... L. breweri var. grandiflorus

60' Flowers in few spaced whorls; 1500–3000 m; e Klamath Ranges (Mount Eddy, Siskiyou Co.), Outer North Coast Ranges (King Range, sw Humboldt Co.) ..... L. lapidicola (2)

59' Plant > 1 dm

61. Calyx generally bulged or spurred < 1 mm; Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains ..... L. argenteus (in part)

62. Leaves basal and cauline; petioles (5)7–15 cm — c High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada ..... var. montigenus

62' Leaves cauline; petioles 1–10 cm

63. Stem hairs appressed; leaf generally appearing green; flower (8)10–12 mm; Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains ..... var. argenteus

63' Stem hairs spreading; leaf gray to silver; flower 8–10 mm; High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Warner Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada ..... var. palmeri

61' Calyx not bulged or spurred

64. Leaf hairs appressed, occasionally sparse

65. Bracts deciduous; leaflets 20–50 mm, silver-silky; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada ..... L. obtusilobus

65' Bracts persistent; leaflets 30–80(130) mm, green, hairy; East of Sierra Nevada (Big Pine Creek, Inyo Co.) ..... L. pratensis var. eriostachyus

64' Leaf hairs ± spreading, dense

66. Flower generally 12–15 mm; plant 2–3.5 dm; stem prostrate to matted — Sierra Nevada ..... L. grayi (2)

66' Flower generally 10–13 mm; plant 3–9 dm; stem erect

67. Petals lavender to purple, often turning brown; banner back densely hairy; Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau ..... L. leucophyllus

67' Petals ± blue to purple; banner back glabrous to ± hairy; s Outer South Coast Ranges (San Luis Obispo Co.) ..... L. ludovicianus (2)

38' Banner back ± glabrous

68. Subshrub or shrub

69. Shrub, generally 5–20 dm; woody stems erect

70. Inflorescence 10–30 cm; petals generally yellow (lilac to purple, especially north of central North Coast); North Coast, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast, Channel Islands ..... L. arboreus

70' Inflorescence 20–45 cm; petals violet to blue; Southwestern California ..... L. longifolius

69' Subshrub, < 5 dm; woody stems prostrate to decumbent

71. Flower 14–18 mm — Tehachapi Mountain Area, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains ..... L. excubitus var. austromontanus (2)

71' Flower 10–16 mm

72. Keel ± unlobed near base — flower 10–15 mm; Northwestern California, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California ..... L. albifrons var. collinus (3)

72' Keel ± lobed near base

73. Flower 10–13 mm; petals purple except banner spot ± white; roots generally yellow; petioles generally < 2 × leaflets, 2–6 cm; n&c North Coast, Central Coast (Point Reyes) ..... L. littoralis (2)

73' Flower 11–16 mm; petals white, yellow, rose, or purple, often on 1 pl; roots not yellow; petioles generally 2 × leaflets, 4–10 cm; North Coast, n&c Central Coast ..... L. variicolor (2)

68' Perennial herb (rarely woody at base)

74. Leaf adaxially glabrous to sparsely hairy, green (except Lupinus elmeri)

75. Upper keel margin ciliate (occasionally sparsely so in Lupinus onustus)

76. Plant 3.5–10 dm; leaves cauline — North Coast ..... L. rivularis

76' Plant < 3.5 dm; leaves generally basal or cauline, clustered near base

77. Flower 8–11 mm, bract 3–4 mm; leaf abaxially silky-hairy; Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada ..... L. onustus

77' Flower 12–18 mm, bract 4–7 mm; leaf abaxially long-stiff-hairy; Modoc Plateau ..... L. saxosus

75' Upper keel margin generally glabrous (occasionally a few hairs)

78. Petals ± yellow — Northwestern California, Cascade Range

79. Bract 2–7 mm; plant 4–6 dm; petals bright yellow to orange-yellow; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range ..... L. croceus (2)

79' Bract 7–14 mm; plant 6–9 dm; petals pale yellow; nw High North Coast Ranges (South Fork Mtn, Humboldt, Trinity cos.) ..... L. elmeri

78' Petals not yellow

80. Stem slender; leaves cauline; leaflets 10–40 mm; dry areas — Klamath Ranges ..... L. tracyi

80' Stem stout; leaves basal and cauline; leaflets 40–150 mm; moist to wet areas ..... L. polyphyllus

81. Leaflet adaxially puberulent to minutely rough-hairy, appearing ± glabrous; Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range ..... var. pallidipes (2)

81' Leaflet adaxially glabrous; California Floristic Province, Great Basin Floristic Province

82. Leaflets 5–11; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, Western Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province ..... var. burkei

82' Leaflets 9–17; Northwestern California, Central Western California (except Inner South Coast Ranges) ..... var. polyphyllus

74' Leaf adaxially hairy, green-gray to silver

83. Inflorescence generally dense, bracts generally persistent (except Lupinus constancei)

84. Inflorescence generally < leaves; plant matted — flowers in 2–3 whorls; White and Inyo Mountains (White Mtns) ..... L. lepidus var. utahensis

84' Inflorescence generally > leaves; plant matted or not

85. Leaves cauline, appearing ± basal

86. Bracts deciduous; petals pink; serpentine barrens — ne Outer North Coast Ranges (Lassics Range, se Humboldt, sw Trinity cos.) ..... L. constancei (3)

86' Bracts persistent; petals pink, violet, or blue; montane to alpine sites ..... L. lepidus (in part) (2)

87. Inflorescence ± head-like, 2–8 cm, generally < some leaves; plant < 1 dm; 2000–3500 m ..... var. lobbii

87' Inflorescence elongate, 4.5–11 cm, > leaves; plant 1.2–3.5 dm; 1000–2500 m ..... var. sellulus

85' Leaves cauline, ± along stem

88. Plant ± prostrate, matted; petals pink — ne Outer North Coast Ranges (Lassics Range, se Humboldt, sw Trinity cos.) ..... L. constancei (3)

88' Plant generally erect, generally not matted; petals blue or violet (occasionally pink)

89. Largest leaflets > 40 mm

90. Leaves cauline, strigose to shaggy-hairy, hairs > 1 mm; inflorescence open; petals light blue; c&s High Sierra Nevada ..... L. covillei (2)

90' Leaves basal and cauline, strigose, hairs < 1 mm; inflorescence dense; petals violet to dark blue; c&s High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada ..... L. pratensis var. pratensis

89' Largest leaflets <= 40 mm ..... L. lepidus (in part) (2)

91. Inflorescence dense, 5–30 cm, whorls > 7, ± crowded; leaves cauline — meadows, vernally moist areas; High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Western Transverse Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains ..... var. confertus

91' Inflorescence generally open, 2–12 cm, whorls 3–7, ± well spaced; leaves, or at least some, basal

92. Leaflets generally 10–30 mm; flower 9–11 mm; 2500–3000 m, s High Sierra Nevada (Kaweah River, Tulare, Fresno cos.) ..... var. culbertsonii

92' Leaflets generally 5–15(23) mm; flower generally 7–9(12) mm; 3000–4000 m, c&s High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada ..... var. ramosus

83' Inflorescence ± open, bracts generally ± deciduous (except Lupinus covillei, Lupinus gracilentus)

93. Upper keel margin generally glabrous

94. Plant < 2 dm; flower 4–11 mm; keel ± straight

95. Petioles (2)3–6(8) cm; plant tufted; stipule 6–11 mm; pedicel (2)4–5 mm; pumice gravel flats — East of Sierra Nevada (Mono Co.) ..... L. duranii

95' Petioles 1–3(4) cm; plant matted or tufted; stipule 2–5 mm; pedicel 1–3(4) mm; montane ..... L. breweri (in part)

96. Flower 6–9 mm; leaflet 6–20 mm; 1000–4000 m ..... var. breweri

96' Flower 4–7 mm; leaflet 3–5 mm; 2500–4000 m ..... var. bryoides

94' Plant > 2 dm; flower generally > 9 mm; keel generally upcurved

97. Stipules green, some leaf-like; flowers 10–14 mm — High Sierra Nevada ..... L. fulcratus

97' Stipule green to silvery, not leaf-like

98. Petals pale yellow or bright yellow to orange-yellow

99. Flower 9–12 mm; petals pale yellow; North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, Sierra Nevada ..... L. adsurgens (2)

99' Flower 12–15 mm; petals bright yellow to orange-yellow; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range ..... L. croceus (2)

98' Petals ± yellow-white to white, ± blue, lavender, violet, purple, or pink

100. Leaves basal and cauline; moist to wet places — Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range ..... L. polyphyllus var. pallidipes (2)

100' Leaves cauline; dry places

101. Banner narrow, wings narrow, not covering keel tip; Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Western Transverse Ranges ..... L. albicaulis

101' Banner wide, wings wide, covering keel tip

102. Leaf green, sparsely to densely hairy

103. Flower 9–12 mm; Northwestern California, High Sierra Nevada, Western Transverse Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada ..... L. andersonii

103' Flower 13–16 mm; San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges ..... L. hyacinthinus

102' Leaf dull green- or gray-hairy to silver-silky

104. Plant resprouting below ground, rhizomed; generally valleys ..... L. formosus

105. Flower 10–14 mm; stem 3–4 mm diam ..... var. formosus

105' Flower 16–18 mm; stem 5–7 mm diam ..... var. robustus

104' Plant resprouting above ground, not rhizomed; mtns

106. Petals white (banner spot turning tawny); seeds 7–11 mm — High North Coast Ranges (Anthony Peak, Mendocino Co.) ..... L. antoninus

106' Petals not white; seeds 4–6 mm

107. Leaflets widest above middle, appressed-hairy to ± silky; petals pale yellow to lavender or violet; North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area ..... L. adsurgens (2)

107' Leaflets widest below middle, densely silver-silky; petals lavender to blue; s High Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges ..... L. elatus (2)

93' Upper keel margin ciliate

108. Plant ± prostrate to decumbent, generally < 3 dm

109. Petals pink; ne Outer North Coast Ranges (Lassics Range, se Humboldt, sw Trinity cos.) ..... L. constancei (3)

109' Petals purple, ± violet, lavender, rose, light blue, yellow, or white; Klamath Ranges, North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada, Central Coast, East of Sierra Nevada

110. Leaves generally basal (if cauline, clustered near base); Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada

111. Inflorescence 10–16 cm; flower 10–16 mm; Sierra Nevada ..... L. grayi (2)

111' Inflorescence 2–7 cm; flower 9–12 mm; e Klamath Ranges (Mount Eddy, Siskiyou Co.), Outer North Coast Ranges (King Range, sw Humboldt Co.) ..... L. lapidicola (2)

110' Leaves cauline; North Coast, Central Coast

112. Leaflets 3–5; stem weak — s North Coast (Sonoma Co.), n&c Central Coast (Marin, Monterey cos.) ..... L. tidestromii

112' Leaflets 5–9; stem not weak

113. Flower 10–13 mm; petals purple except banner spot ± white; roots yellow; petioles generally < 2 × leaflets, 2–6 cm; n&c North Coast, Central Coast (Point Reyes) ..... L. littoralis (2)

113' Flower 11–16 mm; petals white, yellow, rose, or purple, often on 1 pl; roots not yellow; petioles generally 2 × leaflets, 4–10 cm; North Coast, n&c Central Coast ..... L. variicolor (2)

108' Plant generally erect, generally > 2 dm

114. Leaf densely woolly

115. Stem hairs < 1 mm, not sharp, not stiff; petiole 5–12 cm; flower 10–15 mm; s Outer South Coast Ranges (San Luis Obispo Co.) ..... L. ludovicianus (2)

115' Stem hairs sometimes 1–3 mm, sharp, stiff; petiole 6–30 cm; flower 10–18 mm; se High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert ..... L. magnificus

116. Flower 10–13 mm ..... var. glarecola

116' Flower (13)16–18 mm ..... var. magnificus

114' Leaf occasionally densely hairy but not woolly

117. Leaves clustered near base

118. Petals yellow; San Gabriel Mountains ..... L. peirsonii (2)

118' Petals not yellow, occasionally pale yellow or drying so; Inner North Coast Ranges, Outer South Coast Ranges

119. Peduncle 13–20 cm; petals light blue, pink, or pale yellow (often drying pale yellow); Outer South Coast Ranges (Santa Lucia Range) ..... L. cervinus (2)

119' Peduncle 8–15 cm; petals purple to violet; s Inner North Coast Ranges (Napa, Lake, Sonoma cos.) ..... L. sericatus (2)

117' Leaves clustered near base or not, some along stem

120. Flower 5–7(10) mm; n&c High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada ..... L. argenteus var. meionanthus

120' Flower 8–18 mm; c&s High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains

121. Leaflets 30–110 mm

122. Plant strigose to shaggy-hairy; leaflet yellow-green, 5–11 mm wide; lower petioles 5–10 cm; bracts 7–15 mm, persistent, conspicuous; c&s High Sierra Nevada ..... L. covillei (2)

122' Plant puberulent to hairy; leaflet green, 2–5 mm wide; lower petioles (3)5–14 cm; bracts 4–10 mm, ± deciduous, inconspicuous; c High Sierra Nevada (Rock Creek, Inyo, Mono cos., to Yosemite National Park) ..... L. gracilentus

121' Leaflets 15–50 mm

123. Plant 4–7 dm; flower 13–15 mm; ne Desert Mountains (Last Chance Range, Grapevine Mtns, Inyo Co.) ..... L. holmgrenianus

123' Plant 1–4 dm; flower 10–12 mm; Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains ..... L. nevadensis

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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