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Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

DOWNINGIA

Lisa M. Schultheis


Annual, glabrous. Stem: decumbent to erect, (10)20–40 cm. Leaf: cauline, often deciduous before flower, 0.5–2(4) mm wide, lanceolate to awl-like (uppermost wider or not), sessile, generally entire. Inflorescence: spike; terminal flowers often aborted, overtopped by fertile; pedicels 0. Flower: bilateral, generally inverted at full bloom by twisted ovary; corolla generally >> calyx, blue to pink or white, generally with a symmetric white or yellow spot on lower lip, tube entire, limb strongly 2-lipped, upper lip lobes 2, lower lip generally with 2 low ridges, these often with 2 knob-like projections near throat, lobes 3, > upper, generally obovate, obtuse-mucronate; stamens fused (filaments, anthers in tubes), generally 2 smallest anthers each with terminal tuft of bristles, 1 bristle triangular or horn-like, generally 0.2–0.5 mm, others linear, shorter; ovary inferior, long, narrow, ± pedicel-like, chambers 1–2, placentas parietal or axile. Fruit: dehiscent on sides by 3–5 sometimes translucent slits, tardily so or not.
15 species: western North America, Chile. (A.J. Downing, American horticulturist, 1815–1852) [Schultheis 2001 Syst Bot 26:603–621] Flower part positions ("upper" is adaxial; "lower" is abaxial) given at full bloom. Corolla measurements are from base of tube to tip of longest lobe, color including albino for ± all species. Based on geography, interfertility, cytology, and sequences of nuclear as well as chloroplast DNA, Downingia yina Applegate (as recognized in TJM (1993)) split here into 3 morphologically indistinguishable species whose limits need further study, only 2 of which are documented for California: Downingia pulcherrima, Downingia willamettensis.
Unabridged references: [McVaugh 1941 Mem Torrey Bot Club 19:1–57; Weiler 1962 Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ of California, Berkeley; Schultheis 2001 Syst Bot 26:603–621]
Unabridged note: Flower part positions ("upper" is next to stem; "lower" is away from stem) given at full bloom. Corolla measurements are from base of tube to tip of longest lobe, color including albino for ± all species. Based on geography, interfertility, cytology, and sequences of nuclear as well as chloroplast DNA, Downingia yina (as recognized in TJM (1993)) split here into 3 morphologically indistinguishable species whose limits need further study: Downingia yina (as now circumscribed, not in California, although possibly in – yet not documented for – northern Cascade Range), Downingia pulcherrima, and Downingia willamettensis. The present treatment comes after Downingia pulcherrima and Downingia willamettensis had been united under Downingia willamettensis, and that taxon in turn had been transferred to Downingia yina, as Downingia yina var. major (leaving the remainder of that sp. under Downingia yina var. yina).

Key to Downingia

1. Anthers abruptly bent, > 70° to filaments; lower corolla lip lobes ± parallel

2. Corolla with 1 purple band or 3 distinct spots near throat; ovary chambers 2 ..... D. insignis

2' Corolla without purple near throat, or, if present, diffuse; ovary chambers 1

3. Corolla 3-colored (blue, white, yellow); lower corolla lobes obtuse, mucronate ..... D. bacigalupii

3' Corolla 2-colored (blue, white); lower corolla lobes acute ..... D. elegans

1' Anthers not or ± bent, < 45° to filaments; lower corolla lip lobes divergent, not parallel

4. Corolla <= 7 mm; flower not inverting, upper corolla lip 3-lobed

5. Corolla 4–7 mm, with blue or purple spots or band near throat; seeds with longitudinal lines ..... D. laeta

5' Corolla 2.5–4 mm, without blue or purple spots near throat; seeds with spiral lines, appearing twisted ..... D. pusilla

4' Corolla generally >= 7 mm; flower inverting, upper corolla lip 2-lobed

6. Sinus between 2 upper corolla lobes with a backward-projecting horn ..... D. ornatissima

7. Upper corolla lobes densely hairy adaxially near tips ..... var. eximia

7' Upper corolla lobes glabrous or sparsely hairy adaxially near tips ..... var. ornatissima

6' Sinus between 2 upper corolla lobes without a horn

8. 2 largest bristles at tips of lower anthers twisted together (or not or 0) ..... D. bicornuta

9. 2 largest bristles at tips of lower anthers generally >= anthers; corolla tube light blue to pale yellow, with prominent blue veins adaxially ..... var. picta

9' 2 largest bristles at tips of lower anthers < anthers; corolla tube blue, without prominent veins adaxially ..... var. bicornuta

8' 2 largest bristles at tips of lower anthers not twisted

10. Corolla without purple near throat; seeds with spiral lines, appearing twisted ..... D. cuspidata

10' Corolla with 1 purple, ± square spot or 2–3 purple, non-square spots or 1 purple band near throat; seeds with longitudinal lines

11. Corolla with 1 purple, ± square spot (2-lobed or not) near throat; upper corolla lobes ciliate-scabrous ..... D. concolor

12. Mature fruit generally 12–30 mm, readily dehiscent, lines translucent ..... var. brevior

12' Mature fruit (25)30–50 mm, tardily dehiscent, lines not translucent ..... var. concolor

11' Corolla with 2–3 purple, non-square spots or 1 purple band near throat; upper corolla lobes glabrous

13. Anthers exserted, ± tapered, pointed at tip ..... D. pulchella

13' Anthers included to ± exserted, blunt at tip

14. Ovary chambers 2; placentas axile; Great Central Valley, South Coast, n Western Transverse Ranges ..... D. bella

14' Ovary chambers 1; placentas parietal; Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada

15. Upper 3 anthers densely hairy at tips; upper 3 sepals >> lower 2 ..... D. montana

15' Upper 3 anthers glabrous or ± hairy at tips; upper 3 sepals ± > lower 2

16. Plants at 500–1550 m in Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range ..... D. pulcherrima

16' Plants at generally < 200 m in Northwestern California (650 m, Lake Co.) ..... D. willamettensis

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Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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