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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.


Annual, perennial herb, from taproot, fibrous roots, or rhizome, hairs 0 to dense. Stem: reclining or erect, branched, 2–60[150] cm, 4-angled. Leaf: basal or not, cauline, generally lanceolate to ovate, thin, fleshy, or leathery, entire to toothed, sessile or petioled, gradually reduced distally to bracts in inflorescence. Inflorescence: raceme and/or flowers 1 [head, spike, panicle]; terminal or axillary. Flower: not inverted; corolla cylindric to funnel- or bell-shaped, white to deep blue, cut 1/4–2/3 [to all the way] to base, lobes narrow- to wide-triangular; ovary inferior, hemispheric, spheric, or oblong to obconic. Fruit: open by 2–3 lateral pores. Seed: 0.6–3.5 mm, oblong or fusiform.
± 400 species: northern hemisphere; many cultivated, some medicinal. (Latin: little bell, from corolla shape) [Roquet et al. 2008 Syst Bot 33:203–217] Campanula prenanthoides moved to Asyneuma.
Unabridged references: [Morin 1980 Madroño 27:149–163]
Unabridged note: Campanula medium L. collected in 2000 from landfill northern of Baldwin Lake, San Bernardino Mountains, but probably not reproducing.

Key to Campanula

1. Annual, in dry places

2. Leaf oblong-ovate; ovary obovoid to spheric ..... C. angustiflora

2' Leaf ± linear or lanceolate; ovary oblong

3. Corolla < 4 mm ..... C. griffinii

3' Corolla > 7 mm

4. Upper leaves, bracts ± linear; ovary (hypanthium surface) hairy but not papillate ..... C. exigua

4' Upper leaves, bracts widely lanceolate; ovary papillate ..... C. sharsmithiae

1' Perennial herb, in dry places or not

5. Style >> corolla, well exserted ..... C. scouleri

5' Style <= corolla, not exserted

6. Plant hairy throughout

7. Leaf ± 30 mm, entire ..... C. scabrella

7' Leaf 6–7 mm, with few large teeth ..... C. shetleri

6' Plant hairs 0 or only on leaf margins, stem angles, sepals

8. Leaf margin entire; cauline leaf 30–60 mm ..... C. rotundifolia

8' Leaf margin ± sharp-toothed or crenate; cauline leaf < 20 mm

9. Leaf ovate, margin crenate, with recurved, stiff hairs; corolla bell-shaped; coastal ..... C. californica

9' Leaf narrowly oblong, margin with few sharp teeth, glabrous; corolla funnel-shaped; inland ..... C. wilkinsiana


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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