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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Margriet Wetherwax & David M. Thompson

Annual, perennial herb, glabrous to hairy. Stem: ascending, erect, or vine-like, often clinging by twining pedicels or branchlets. Leaf: proximal generally opposite, distal alternate, generally reduced distally on stem; veins pinnate. Inflorescence: cleistogamous or opening; raceme or flower 1 in axils. Flower: uppermost calyx lobe generally largest; corolla tube of opening flowers truncate or with rounded sac-like extension at base, lower lip base generally swollen, closing throat; stamens 4, generally included, staminode 0; style included, straight or curved, glabrous or glandular-puberulent to near tip, stigma inconspicuous. Fruit: ovoid to spheric; chambers 2, generally dehiscent by 1–2 pores near tip, lower chamber generally larger, upper occasionally indehiscent. Seed: many, generally with tubercles or netted ridges, winged or not.
35 species: western North America, western Mediterranean. (Greek: nose-like, from corolla shape) [Oyama & Baum 2004 Amer J Bot 91:918–925; Vargas et al. 2004 Plant Syst Evol 249:151–172] North America taxa more closely related to Mohavea than to Mediterranean taxa; revision needed. Antirrhinum cyathiferum moved to Pseudorontium.
Unabridged references: [Ghebrehiwet et al. 2000 Plant Syst Evol 220:223–239; Thompson 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 22:1–142]

Key to Antirrhinum

1. Pedicels 3–10 cm, twining or with U-shaped hook

2. Corolla of opening flowers yellow and gold with maroon flecks on lower lip; fruit fragile, opening by irregular bursting on sides ..... A. filipes

2' Corolla of opening flowers lavender to deep blue-purple, veins darker; fruit firm, dehiscent by 2 slits at tip ..... A. kelloggii

1' Pedicels 0.1–2.5 cm, not twining, not hooked

3. Proximal-most flowers not subtended by branchlets; flowers all opening; annual to perennial herb; plants self-supporting

4. Lower calyx lobes >= corolla tube; seed generally smooth, 1 side flattened, with raised, rough, irregular border ..... [A. orontium]

4' Lower calyx lobes < to << corolla tube; seed netted, ridged, or winged

5. Corolla 25–45 mm ..... [A. majus]

5' Corolla 7–18 mm

6. Flowers in terminal racemes; corolla 13–18 mm, pale pink to red; often perennial herb from caudex

7. Plant sticky-glandular-hairy ..... A. multiflorum

7' Plant glabrous ..... A. virga

6' Flowers 1 in leaf axils; corolla generally white, cream, or pale lavender, often with violet or purple veins or marks, 7–14 mm; annual

8. Corolla veins violet; swollen lower lip base with dense, cylindric hairs to 1 mm; Klamath Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, w Cascade Range, n Sacramento Valley ..... A. cornutum

8' Corolla veins not contrasting in color; swollen lower lip base with sparse, sphere-tipped hairs; Sierra Nevada (especially Sierra Nevada Foothills) ..... A. leptaleum

3' Proximal-most flowers and often others generally subtended by branchlets; flowers all opening or some cleistogamous; annual, rarely biennial; plants often not self-supporting, but climbing or sprawling

9. Calyx lobes ± equal

10. Only stem base and inflorescence hairy; upper fruit chamber indehiscent ..... A. coulterianum

10' Plant hairy throughout; both fruit chambers dehiscent ..... A. nuttallianum

11. Hairs very dense, very fine, of mixed lengths, tips ± not enlarged ..... subsp. nuttallianum

11' Hairs sparse to moderately dense, coarse, of ± = length, tips much-enlarged ..... subsp. subsessile

9' Calyx lobes unequal

12. Flowers cleistogamous and opening; corolla of opening flowers 5–7 mm, white, veins violet ..... A. kingii

12' Flowers all opening; corolla 8–20 mm, white to tan, cream tinged pink, or lavender

13. Corolla lower lip base not swollen, not closing throat, throat floor with 2 longitudinal folds ..... A. ovatum

13' Corolla lower lip base swollen, closing throat, throat floor without folds

14. Corolla white to tan, throat floor expanded at mouth, lower lip lobes reflexed, poorly developed ..... A. subcordatum

14' Corolla lavender, throat uniformly narrowed, lower lip lobes thrust forward, erect or spreading, conspicuous ..... A. vexillocalyculatum

15. Proximal stem glabrous or with nonglandular hairs to 3 mm; corolla 11–17 mm — s North Coast Ranges, Sacramento Valley (Sutter Buttes), San Francisco Bay Area, n Inner South Coast Ranges ..... subsp. vexillocalyculatum

15' Proximal stem glandular-hairy, with or without nonglandular hairs; corolla 8–14 mm

16. Branchlets subtending flowers with 1 leaf at proximal-most node; Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills ..... subsp. breweri

16' Branchlets subtending flowers generally with 2 leaves at proximal-most node; n&c Sierra Nevada ..... subsp. intermedium


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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