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Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.

 

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS MANZANITA

V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley


Shrub to small tree, prostrate to erect. Stem: old stems generally ± red, smooth, bark generally thin, peeling, or generally ± gray or red-gray, shredding and rough; burls at base, woody, sprouting after fire, or generally 0; twig hairs 0 or generally ± like those on inflorescence axes, bracts. Leaf: alternate, evergreen; blade flat to convex, base lobed to wedge-shaped, clasping stem or not, margins generally flat, surfaces with stomata generally both abaxially, adaxially, alike in color, hairiness, less often only or fewer abaxially, generally differing in color, hairiness. Inflorescence: ± raceme (generally 0–1-branched) or panicle (generally 2–10-branched), terminal, nascent inflorescence present following stem growth, generally late spring through winter, remaining dormant 4–6 months prior to flower (except in Arctostaphylos pringlei subsp. drupacea); branches 0 or raceme-like; flower bracts leaf-like, generally flat, or scale-like, often folded, keeled, tips rounded to acute to awl-shaped. Flower: radial; sepals 5(4), free, persistent; corolla conic to urn-shaped, lobes in number = sepals, short, rounded, curved back, white to pink; stamens 2 × number of sepals, included, filaments swollen, generally hairy at base, anthers dark red, with 2 curved back dorsal awns; ovary on disk, 4–10-chambered, ovule 1 per chamber. Fruit: drupe, generally ± depressed-spheric to spheric; flesh generally thick, ± mealy, occasionally 0; stones 2–10, free, fused, or some fused.
± 62 species: North America (especially California) to Central America, Eurasia. (Greek: bear berries) [Keeley 1997 Madroño 44:109–111; Parker et al. 2007 Madroño 54:148–155]
Unabridged note: Rosatti (1986 Syst Bot 12:61–77) showed that in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi little to none of the variation in hairs (including length, glandularity) is genetically based.

Key to Arctostaphylos

1. Burls at base of main stem, also above or not; plant sprouting after fire

2. Leaves with stomata generally only abaxially, surfaces generally differing in color and/or hairiness

3. Old stem bark persistent, gray, shredding ..... A. tomentosa

4. Twig with glands ..... subsp. bracteosa

4' Twig without glands

5. Twig short-tomentose and long-nonglandular-hairy ..... subsp. daciticola

5' Twig short-tomentose or short-nonglandular-hairy

6. Leaves glabrous abaxially ..... subsp. hebeclada

6' Leaves tomentose abaxially ..... subsp. tomentosa

3' Old stem bark generally smooth or peeling, ± red

7. Plant prostrate; burls at base of main stem or occasionally above; fruit spheric; leaf blades oblanceolate to obovate or narrowly elliptic; widespread ..... A. uva-ursi (2)

7' Plant erect; burls at base of main stem; fruit depressed-spheric; leaf blades oblong-ovate to lance-oblong; Inner North Coast Ranges, Central Western California, s Central Coast/Outer South Coast Ranges (nw Santa Barbara Co.), n Channel Islands..... A. crustacea

8. Twig, nascent inflorescence axes densely glandular-hairy ..... subsp. subcordata

8' Twig, nascent inflorescence axes glabrous or nonglandular-hairy, occasionally sparsely glandular-hairy

9. Twig with short and long hairs

10. Leaf abaxially densely nonglandular-hairy ..... subsp. crinita

10' Leaf abaxially ± nonglandular-hairy, in age glabrous ..... subsp. crustacea

9' Twig with short hairs

11. Leaf abaxially densely short-nonglandular-hairy ..... subsp. insulicola

11' Leaf abaxially glabrous

12. Pedicel, ovary glabrous ..... subsp. eastwoodiana

12' Pedicel, ovary generally short-nonglandular-hairy ..... subsp. rosei

2' Leaves with stomata on both surfaces, occasionally fewer adaxially, surfaces generally the same in color and/or hairiness (except Artostaphylos pacifica)

13. Old stem bark persistent, shredding, gray ..... A. rudis (2)

13' Old stem bark smooth or peeling, ± red

14. Plant prostrate to mounded; inflorescence raceme, 0–1-branched

15. Leaf entire; fruit dark brown; Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges ..... A. nevadensis subsp. knightii

15' Leaf serrate; fruit ± red; Central Coast (San Bruno Mtn) ..... A. pacifica

14' Plant erect; inflorescence panicle

16. Twig and/or inflorescence axes and/or bracts glandular

17. Glands golden, on short hairs; burl 0 or often flat, obscure; High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains ..... A. patula (3)

17' Glands black or clear (pink), on short and long hairs; burl hemispheric; Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, w San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges ..... A. glandulosa (in part) (2)

18. Leaves strongly white-glaucous ..... subsp. leucophylla

18' Leaves green to gray-green, ± glaucous

19. Twig generally glandular; Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, Peninsular Ranges ..... subsp. glandulosa

19' Twig not glandular; Outer South Coast Ranges (c&e Santa Lucia Range) ..... subsp. howellii

16' Twig, inflorescence axes, bracts not glandular (except twig minutely glandular, inflorescence axes sparsely short glandular in Arctostaphylos rainbowensis)

20. Fruit spheric (depressed-spheric in Arctostaphylos mewukka)

21. Stones generally free; fruit dark mahogany-brown; Sierra Nevada Foothills, n High Sierra Nevada ..... A. mewukka subsp. mewukka

21' Stones fused; fruit dark red to dark brown with ± purple tinge; San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges

22. Twig minutely glandular; Peninsular Ranges (San Diego, Riverside cos.) ..... A. rainbowensis

22' Twig nonglandular; San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges (San Jacinto, Santa Rosa, San Ysidro mtns) ..... A. parryana

23. Leaves gray-glaucous; Peninsular Ranges (San Jacinto, Santa Rosa, San Ysidro mtns) ..... subsp. desertica

23' Leaves green; San Bernardino Mountains ..... subsp. tumescens

20' Fruit depressed-spheric, (to ± spheric in Arctostaphylos patula)

24. Nascent inflorescence bracts scale-like or awl-shaped

25. Twig hairs 0 or nonglandular; leaves dull to bright green; burl prominent; Inner North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills (Butte Co.) ..... A. manzanita subsp. roofii

25' Twig hairs glandular or nonglandular; leaves bright green; burl 0 or often flat, obscure; High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains ..... A. patula (3)

24' Nascent inflorescence bracts at least occasionally leaf-like ..... A. glandulosa (in part) (2)

26. Leaves strongly white-glaucous; Southwestern California (except Channel Islands) ..... subsp. adamsii

26' Leaves green, yellow-, or gray-green; Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, South Coast (San Diego Co.), Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges

27. Twig hairs soft-wavy ..... subsp. mollis

27' Twig hairs not soft-wavy

28. Leaves shiny bright green; fruit depressed-spheric, stones fused or in 2(3) fused units ..... subsp. gabrielensis

28' Leaves not shiny or bright green; fruit depressed-spheric, stones generally free

29. Leaf blades dark green, margins often ± red; fruit markedly depressed-spheric; South Coast (San Diego Co.) ..... subsp. crassifolia

29' Leaf blades green or gray-green; fruit not markedly depressed-spheric; Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, Peninsular Ranges ..... subsp. cushingiana

1' Burls 0; plant not sprouting after fire

30. Leaves with stomata abaxially, surfaces generally different in color and/or hairiness

31. Flower parts in 4s; fruit 3–4 mm wide

32. Old stem bark smooth, ± red; w San Francisco Bay Area (Bolinas Ridge, Mount Tamalpais, Santa Cruz Mtns) ..... A. sensitiva

32' Old stem bark generally rough or shredding, gray or red-gray; c North Coast (Mendocino Co.), c&s Outer North Coast Ranges ..... A. nummularia

33. Plant prostrate to mounded; leaf blade 0.5–1.2 cm, 0.3–0.7 cm wide, oblong-elliptic; pygmy forest; c North Coast (Mendocino Co.) ..... subsp. mendocinoensis

33' Plant prostrate to erect; leaf blade 1–2.2 cm, 0.8–1.8 cm wide, round to round-ovate; coastal prairie, maritime chaparral, closed-cone forest; c North Coast/Outer North Coast Ranges (Mendocino Co.)..... subsp. nummularia

31' Flower parts in 5s; fruit 5–15 mm wide

34. Leaf abaxially generally tomentose, sparsely so in age

35. Leaf blade oblong-ovate to -elliptic, 1.5–3 cm, base ± truncate to ± cordate; plant erect; s Central Coast (s Morro Bay, San Luis Obispo Co.) ..... A. morroensis

35' Leaf blade narrowly obovate to oblanceolate, 1–2 cm, base wedge-shaped; plant prostrate to mounded; c Central Coast (around Monterey Bay, Monterey Co.) ..... A. pumila

34' Leaf abaxially glabrous or sparsely nonglandular-hairy

36. Plant generally prostrate to low-mounded

37. Leaves oblanceolate to obovate, occasionally narrowly elliptic, base wedge-shaped; North Coast, c High Sierra Nevada (above Convict Lake, Mono Co), Central Coast ..... A. uva-ursi (2)

37' Leaves elliptic to round-ovate, base truncate to ± lobed; c Central Coast (nw Monterey Co.) ..... A. edmundsii

36' Plant erect

38. Petioles 4–8 mm; leaf oblong-elliptic, base rounded, tip obtuse; n Channel Islands (Santa Cruz Island) ..... A. insularis

38' Petioles 1–2(4) mm; leaf oblong to triangular-ovate, base lobed, tip acute; n-c Central Coast, s&w San Francisco Bay Area

39. Old stem bark smooth, ± red; leaf light green; w San Francisco Bay Area (Santa Cruz Mtns) ..... A. andersonii

39' Old stem bark persistent, shredding, gray or ± red; leaf blue-green; n-c Central Coast, s San Francisco Bay Area (Pajaro Hills) ..... A. pajaroensis

30' Leaves with stomata on both surfaces, surfaces similar in color and/or hairiness

40. Plant prostrate to prostrate-mounded, 0.1–0.5(3) m

41. Petioles to 2 mm; leaf base lobed, clasping; nascent inflorescence bracts leaf-like

42. Twig, nascent inflorescences, pedicel, ovary nonglandular; < 150 m, c Central Coast (s Monterey, nw San Luis Obispo cos.) ..... A. cruzensis

42' Twig, nascent inflorescence, pedicel, ovary glandular; 200–400 m, Central Coast (San Bruno Mtn) ..... A. imbricata

41' Petioles 1–12 mm; leaf base rounded or obtuse to wedge-shaped, not clasping; nascent inflorescence bracts scale-like (basal-most leaf-like in Arctostaphylos franciscana)

43. Twig, inflorescence axes, bracts glandular; e Klamath Ranges (Scott Mtn Divide, Slate Mtn) ..... A. klamathensis

43' Twig, inflorescence axes, bracts generally nonglandular; Sonoma Co. to San Luis Obispo Co.

44. Inflorescence panicle, 3–5-branched; leaf blade generally 3–5 cm — s Outer North Coast Ranges (near Healdsburg and Santa Rosa, Sonoma Co.) ..... A. stanfordiana subsp. decumbens

44' Inflorescence ± raceme or panicle, 0–3(5)-branched; leaf blade generally 0.8–3 cm

45. Fruit 3–5 mm wide

46. Leaf blade ± elliptic, 0.8–1.2 cm, 0.4–0.7 cm wide; fruit 3–5 mm wide; s Central Coast (n San Luis Obispo Co.) ..... A. hookeri subsp. hearstiorum

46' Leaf blade round to round-elliptic, 1–2 cm, 1–1.5 cm wide; fruit 4–5 mm wide; n Central Coast (San Francisco Presidio) ..... A. montana subsp. ravenii

45' Fruit 6–8 mm wide

47. Twig gray-tomentose; bracts 3–4 mm; c Central Coast (San Francisco) ..... A. franciscana

47' Twig sparsely short-nonglandular-hairy; bracts near inflorescence base occasionally 5–10 mm; Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, n East of Sierra Nevada (Sweetwater Mtns) ..... A. nevadensis subsp. nevadensis

40' Plant generally erect, occasionally mounded to erect, (0.1)0.3–8 m

48. Nascent inflorescence bracts fleshy, scoop-shaped or generally scale-like, deltate to awl-shaped, keeled or not

49. Inflorescence generally ± raceme, occasionally 1–2-branched

50. Old stem bark persistent, shredding, gray — s Central Coast, s Outer South Coast Ranges (Nipomo, Burton mesas, Point Sal; sw San Luis Obispo, nw Santa Barbara cos.) ..... A. rudis (2)

50' Old stem bark smooth, dark red with ± gray or ± glaucous patches or ± red

51. Twig glandular-hairy; old stems dark red with ± gray or ± glaucous patches; n Sierra Nevada Foothills (Amador, Calaveras cos.) ..... A. myrtifolia

51' Twig sparsely short-nonglandular-hairy; old stems ± red, without ± gray or ± glaucous patches; n Central Coast, s San Francisco Bay Area (s Santa Cruz Mtns), South Coast Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, e Desert Mountains

52. Nascent inflorescence spheric, cup-like, axis 0.3–1 cm, crook-necked, bracts ± spreading; fruit 3–8 mm wide; n Central Coast, s San Francisco Bay Area (s Santa Cruz Mtns) ..... A. hookeri subsp. hookeri

52' Nascent inflorescence club-like, axis 0.5–1.5 cm, not crook-necked, bracts recurved; fruit 8–14 mm wide; South Coast Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, e Desert Mountains ..... A. pungens

49' Inflorescence panicle, (1)3–8-branched

53. Leaf blade ± white, white-glaucous, gray-green, gray-glaucous

54. Fruit (10)12–16 mm wide, spheric or ± spheric

55. Stones free, occasionally some fused; nascent inflorescence bracts appressed; fruit glabrous; s Cascade Range Foothills, High Cascade Range (near Paradise), n Sierra Nevada Foothills ..... A. mewukka subsp. truei

55' Stones fused; nascent inflorescence bracts spreading; fruit glabrous or sticky; San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, sw Desert Mountains (Little San Bernardino Mtns)

56. Petiole 1–4 mm; leaf generally short-nonglandular-hairy, base lobed; ovary, fruit glabrous, not sticky; n Inner South Coast Ranges (n&c Gabilan Range, San Benito, Monterey cos.) ..... A. gabilanensis

56' Petiole 7–15 mm; leaf glabrous, base rounded, truncate, or ± lobed; ovary, fruit glandular-sticky; San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, sw Desert Mountains (Little San Bernardino Mtns) ..... A. glauca

54' Fruit 6–12 mm wide, depressed-spheric

57. Nascent inflorescence bracts nonglandular; Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada ..... A. viscida

58. Twig densely glandular-hairy; leaf sparsely short-glandular-hairy, ciliate, papillate, scabrous; Sierra Nevada ..... subsp. mariposa

58' Twig glabrous to sparsely short-nonglandular-hairy; leaf glabrous

59. Ovary, fruit rough, sticky-glandular; Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges ..... subsp. pulchella

59' Ovary, fruit smooth, glabrous, not sticky; Klamath Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada ..... subsp. viscida

57' Nascent inflorescence bracts glabrous or nonglandular- or glandular-hairy; Klamath Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges (Sonoma, Colusa, Shasta, Trinity cos.), c&s Outer North Coast Ranges

60. Leaf blade glaucous, canescent or densely white-tomentose, in age glabrous; ovary densely nonglandular-hairy; Klamath Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges (Sonoma, Colusa, Shasta, Trinity cos.) ..... A. malloryi

60' Leaf ± glaucous, glabrous or scabrous; ovary glabrous (minutely glandular-hairy); c&s Outer North Coast Ranges ..... A. manzanita subsp. glaucescens

53' Leaf blade green, shiny or dull both surfaces, not ± white or ± gray due to ± glaucous or hairy surfaces

61. Twig glandular

62. Nascent inflorescence spreading to erect, axes < 1 mm wide; bracts appressed, ± = buds; buds appearing as scattered beads

63. Leaf blade 1.5–3 cm, dull green; corolla white; twig finely glandular-hairy; Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges ..... A. hispidula

63' Leaf blade 3–5 cm, bright green to ± glaucous; corolla white to pink; twig short-glandular-hairy; s Inner North Coast Ranges (s Mendocino, w Lake cos.) ..... A. stanfordiana subsp. raichei

62' Nascent inflorescence pendent, axes generally > 1 mm wide; bracts generally ± appressed, > buds, buds not appearing as beads

64. Leaf blade generally 2–6 cm, at least some > 3 cm, round to widely ovate or oblong

65. Glands of twig, nascent inflorescences dark or clear; leaf dull green, scabrous, glandular; High North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills (Shasta, Tehama cos.) ..... A. manzanita subsp. wieslanderi

65' Glands of twig, nascent inflorescences gold or 0; leaf bright green, glabrous; High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains ..... A. patula (3)

64' Leaf blade 1.5–3 cm, elliptic to ovate

66. Twig with occasionally long glandular hairs; siliceous shale, sw San Francisco Bay Area (n Ben Lomond Mtn, nw Santa Cruz Co.) ..... A. ohloneana

66' Twig with glandular hairs or sessile glands; serpentine, s Outer North Coast Ranges (Sonoma Co.) ..... A. bakeri

67. Twig with glandular hairs; s Outer North Coast Ranges (central Sonoma Co. s of Guerneville) ..... subsp. bakeri

67' Twig with sessile glands; s Outer North Coast Ranges (Sonoma Co. from The Cedars to Healdsburg) ..... subsp. sublaevis

61' Twig nonglandular

68. Nascent inflorescence axis generally < 1 mm wide

69. Leaf blade 1–2.5 cm; bracts > buds; buds not appearing as beads; plant mounded to erect; s Outer North Coast Ranges (Vine Hill near Forestville, Sonoma Co.) ..... A. densiflora

69' Leaf blades 3–5 cm; bracts ± = buds; buds appearing as scattered beads; plant erect; Outer North Coast Ranges, c&s Inner North Coast Ranges ..... A. stanfordiana subsp. stanfordiana

68' Nascent inflorescence axis > 1 mm wide

70. Leaf blade 1–2.5 cm ..... A. montana subsp. montana

70' Leaf blade 1.5–5 cm

71. Ovary, fruit minutely glandular-hairy; plant erect; Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges ..... A. manzanita subsp. elegans

71' Ovary, fruit glabrous; plant mounded or erect; Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, s Cascade Range Foothills, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, n High Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley, n&e San Francisco Bay Area, Transverse Ranges

72. Fruit spheric, stones fused; Transverse Ranges ..... A. parryana subsp. parryana

72' Fruit depressed-spheric, stones free; Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, s Cascade Range Foothills, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, n High Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley, n&e San Francisco Bay Area ..... A. manzanita (in part)

73. Leaf blade bright green; inflorescence 2–4-branched, axis > 1 mm wide; nascent inflorescence branches to 15 mm; s Inner North Coast Ranges (Vaca Mtns), e San Francisco Bay Area (Mount Diablo) ..... subsp. laevigata

73' Leaf blade dull to bright green; inflorescence 4–7-branched, axis ± 1 mm wide; nascent inflorescence branches generally 15–25 mm; Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, s Cascade Range Foothills, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, n High Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley, n San Francisco Bay Area ..... subsp. manzanita

48' Nascent inflorescence bracts generally leaf-like, flat

74. Old stem bark persistent, gray, shredding (except occasionally smooth on Arctostaphylos osoensis)

75. Leaf gray, dull, sparsely appressed-puberulent, in age glabrous, base rounded to wedge-shaped, not clasping; n Sierra Nevada (Placer, El Dorado cos.), c Sierra Nevada Foothills (Tuolumne Co.) ..... A. nissenana

75' Leaf dark green, ± shiny, sparsely short-nonglandular-hairy or glabrous, base lobed, clasping; s Central Coast (w Los Osos Valley, San Luis Obispo Co.) ..... A. osoensis

74' Old stem bark smooth, ± red

76. Leaf gray-canescent in youth, glabrous in age

77. Leaf base lobed, clasping; petiole to 4 mm

78. Ovary, fruit glabrous; Outer South Coast Ranges (se of Cuesta Pass, San Luis Obispo Co.) ..... A. luciana

78' Ovary, fruit nonglandular-hairy or glandular- and nonglandular-hairy; eastern and southwestern San Francisco Bay Area

79. Ovary, fruit nonglandular-hairy; e San Francisco Bay Area (Mount Diablo and vicinity) ..... A. auriculata

79' Ovary, fruit glandular- and nonglandular-hairy; sw San Francisco Bay Area (n Ben Lomond Mtn, nw Santa Cruz Co.) ..... A. glutinosa

77' Leaf base wedge-shaped, rounded, truncate, or ± lobed, not clasping; petiole 3–10 mm

80. Ovary glabrous; corolla white

81. Inflorescence 2–4-branched panicle; pedicel 8–10 mm; Outer South Coast Ranges (c&s Santa Lucia Range) ..... A. obispoensis

81' Inflorescence 0–1-branched, ± raceme; pedicel 5–7 mm; sw San Francisco Bay Area (s Santa Cruz Mtns) ..... A. silvicola

80' Ovary glandular- or nonglandular-hairy; corolla pink or white ..... A. canescens

82. Ovary nonglandular-hairy; Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, n Central Coast (Tassajara, Santa Lucia Range), w San Francisco Bay Area (Mount Tamalpais; s Santa Cruz Mtns) ..... subsp. canescens

82' Ovary glandular-hairy; w Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, w San Francisco Bay Area (Shasta-Santa Cruz cos.) ..... subsp. sonomensis

76' Leaf green to glaucous, glabrous to variously hairy but not gray-canescent

83. Leaf base lobed (truncate to lobed in Arctostaphylos viridissima), often clasping (except Arctostaphylos hooveri with longer petiole)

84. Nascent inflorescence nonglandular-hairy

85. Pedicel nonglandular-hairy; n Channel Islands (e Santa Cruz Island) ..... A. viridissima

85' Pedicel glabrous or sparsely nonglandular-hairy; s Central Coast, s Outer South Coast Ranges/Western Transverse Ranges

86. Leaf blade 2–5 cm; fruit 8–12 mm wide; stones generally fused; s Central Coast (Morro Bay to Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo Co.) ..... A. pechoensis

86' Leaf blade 1–2.5 cm; fruit 5–8 mm wide; stones free; s Central Coast, s Outer South Coast Ranges/Western Transverse Ranges (w Santa Barbara Co.) ..... A. purissima

84' Nascent inflorescence glandular-hairy

87. Fruit 10–15 mm wide, spheric; stones fused; s Outer South Coast Ranges/w Western Transverse Ranges (Santa Ynez Mtns) ..... A. refugioensis

87' Fruit 6–10(15) mm wide, depressed-spheric; stones free; Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges

88. Leaf blade generally ovate, 2.5–4.5 cm, not boat-shaped, sparsely glandular or not but not sticky

89. Leaf blade bright green, not glaucous; twig long-glandular-hairy; Central Coast (San Bruno Mtn), w San Francisco Bay Area (Montara Mtn) ..... A. montaraensis

89' Leaf blade green, glaucous; twig short- and long-nonglandular-hairy; e San Francisco Bay Area (Sobrante, Huckleberry ridges; Alameda, Contra Costa cos.) ..... A. pallida

88' Leaf blade oblong-ovate, 3–6 cm, boat-shaped, glandular-sticky in youth, glabrous but possibly still sticky in age

90. Petiole 3–6 mm; leaves not clasping; Outer South Coast Ranges (Santa Lucia Range) ..... A. hooveri

90' Petiole < 3 mm; leaves clasping; w San Francisco Bay Area (n Santa Cruz Mtns) ..... A. regismontana

83' Leaf base rounded, truncate, wedge-shaped, or ± lobed, not clasping (except occasionally in suspected hybrids of Arctostaphylos montereyensis and Arctostaphylos pajaroensis)

91. Lf-like bracts deep pink, glandular, deciduous after flower; San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges ..... A. pringlei subsp. drupacea

91' Lf-like bracts green, glandular or not, persistent after flower; North Coast, nw&w Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, nw San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, Channel Islands, sw Peninsular Ranges

92. Fruit spheric; stones free or fused

93. Fruit 8–15 mm wide; leaf papillate, scabrous, base truncate to ± lobed; s Channel Islands (Santa Catalina Island) ..... A. catalinae

93' Fruit 6–8 mm wide; leaf not papillate, not scabrous, base wedge-shaped, rounded, or truncate; sw Peninsular Ranges ..... A. otayensis

92' Fruit depressed-spheric; stones free

94. Inflorescence ± raceme, 0–1-branched

95. Twig, inflorescence axes, bracts glandular; n Central Coast, nw San Francisco Bay Area (Marin Co.) ..... A. virgata

95' Twig, inflorescence axes, bracts nonglandular (except occasionally minutely glandular in Arctostaphylos nortensis); nw Klamath Ranges, s Central Coast, s Outer South Coast Ranges

96. Pedicel, ovary, fruit nonglandular-hairy; 500–940 m, nw Klamath Ranges (n Del Norte Co.) ..... A. nortensis

96' Pedicel, ovary, fruit glabrous; 30–1250 m, s Central Coast (Pismo Beach vicinity), s Outer South Coast Ranges (s Santa Lucia, La Panza ranges and s) ..... A. pilosula

94' Inflorescence panicle, 3–10-branched

97. Leaves overlapped; plant shrub, prostrate to mounded or erect, 0.1–2 m; n Channel Islands (Santa Rosa Island) ..... A. confertiflora

97' Leaves not overlapped; plant shrub or tree, erect, 1–5 m; North Coast, w Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, c Central Coast, n Outer South Coast Ranges

98. Leaf lanceolate to ovate, dark green; nascent inflorescence generally short- and long-nonglandular-hairy, occasionally glandular-hairy; North Coast, w Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges ..... A. columbiana

98' Leaf round to oblong-ovate, bright green or ± glaucous; nascent inflorescence glandular-hairy; c Central Coast (Fort Ord), n Outer South Coast Ranges (Mount Toro, nw Monterey Co.) ..... A. montereyensis

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.